Notable Quotes

June 26, 2011 § 1 Comment

“Studies of later start times have consistently reported benefits to adolescent sleep, health and learning using a wide variety of methodological approaches. In contrast there are no studies showing that early starts have any positive impact on sleep, health or learning.”—Paul Kelley, Ph.D., Honorary Research Associate, Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, University of Oxford, Steven Lockley, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Russell Foster, Ph.D., F.R.S., Head of Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Chair of Circadian Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Jonathan Kelley, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, University of Nevada, Reno. (Kelley, Lockley, Foster, & Kelley, Synchronizing education to adolescent biology: ‘let teens sleep, start school later’ (Aug. 1, 2014) Learning, Media and Technology, p. 11.)

“There’s no question that later start times pose significant challenges and barriers, … but this is something within our control, something we can change to make a significant impact on the long-term health of children. … If you knew that in your child’s school there was a toxic substance that reduced the capacity to learn, increased the chances of a car crash and made it likely that 20 years from now he would be obese and suffer from hypertension, you’d do everything possible to get rid of that substance and not worry about cost. Early start times are toxic.”—Judith Owens, M.D., M.P.H., Director of Sleep Medicine, Children’s National Medical Center, Professor of Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. (Clarkson, Resetting the Clock: High School Start Times (Apr. 1, 2013) Wash. Parent.)

exeter school classroom -- foucaultblog“We find that when a student is randomly assigned to a first period course starting prior to 8 a.m., they perform significantly worse in all their courses taken on that day compared to students who are not assigned to a first period course. Importantly, we find that this negative effect diminishes the later the school day begins. [¶] Our findings have important implications for education policy; administrators aiming to improve student achievement should consider the potential benefits of delaying school start time. A later start time of 50 minutes in our sample has the equivalent benefit as raising teacher quality by roughly one standard deviation. Hence, later start times may be a cost-effective way to improve student outcomes for adolescents.”—Scott Carrell, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of California at Davis, Teny Maghakian, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Economics, Santa Clara University, James West, Ph.D., W.H. Smith Professor of Economics, Baylor University. (CarrellMaghakian, & West, A’s from Zzzz’s? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Performance of Adolescents (Aug. 2011) 3 Am. Economic J.: Economic Policy 3, pp. 63, 80.)

“The Central Virginia jurisdiction with earlier school start times manifested a nearly 30% greater teen crash rate, supporting our Southeast Virginia findings — increased teen crash rate in the city with earlier start times. While a causal relationship between school start times and teen crash rates cannot be ascertained from aggregate data, replication of prior data and marked differences presently found suggest earlier high school start times may increase crashes in this vulnerable population.”—David Leszczyszyn, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Neurology, Medical Director, Virginia Commonwealth University Center for Sleep, Robert Vorona, M.D., Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Mariana Szklo-Coxe, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Community and Environmental Health, Old Dominion University, Rajan Lamichhane, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Old Dominion University, A. McNallen, Neurology, Virginia Commonwealth University. (Leszczyszyn, Vorona, Szklo-Coxe, Lamichhane, McNallen, The Virginia Jurisdiction with an Earlier Public High School Start Time Again Demonstrates Greater Teen Crashes (2013) 36 J. Sleep, Abstract Supp., No. 1083, pp. A370-A371 [pre-publication abstract of study comparing teen crash rates in Chesterfield County (7:20 a.m. start time) and Henrico County (8:45 a.m. start time) using the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and summary crash rates using the Z-statistic]; see, Vorona, Szklo-Coxe, Wu, Dubik, Zhao, & Ware, Dissimilar Teen Crash Rates in Two Neighboring Southeastern Virginia Cities with Different High School Start Times (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 2, pp. 145-151.)

“Given the danger posed to young people from car accidents this is a strong reason in itself to change school start times.”—John Cline, Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Yale School Traffic lights -- a bit complexof Medicine, after 2008 study by Danner & Phillips found one hour delay in high school start times (7:30 a.m.–8:30 a.m.) in Fayette County, Kentucky associated with 16.5% drop in teen crash rates as compared to 7.8% rise in the state. (Cline, Do Later School Start Times Really Help High School Students? (Feb. 27, 2011) Psychology Today.)

“Most of us in sleep medicine now believe that teenagers require nine-plus hours of sleep each night, and the consequences of insufficient sleep include excessive daytime sleepiness, mood disorders, and even potential suicidal ideation[.] [¶] Many of us think that early high school start times could be problematic and may be a major determinant of these high rates of accidents and fatalities, and that later start times would be more in tune with teenagers’ circadian rhythm[.]”—Robert Vorona, M.D., Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School. (APSS: Later School Start Times May Cut Teen Car Crashes (Jun. 11, 2010) Medpage Today.)

“Common sense to improve student achievement that too few have implemented: let teens sleep more, start school later[.]”—Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education, via Twitter, @arneduncan (Aug. 19, 2013, screen capture here), commenting on August 18, 2013, Washington Post editorial, A smarter way to start high schoolers’ days.

school bell“School administrators would serve students and teachers better by moving the opening bell later. The weight of the evidence from decades of studies suggests that creating conditions to encourage student sleep would improve the students’ mood, energy, alertness, and academic performance. [¶] Schools are not solely responsible for the perfect storm of teen sleep, but they can make a huge difference by moving to a later start time. The result would be happier, healthier, more attentive, and better performing students in high school.”—Mary Carskadon, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Brown University School of Medicine, Director of Chronobiology and Sleep Research at Bradley Hospital. (Carskadon, For better student health, start school later (Sept. 5, 2012) Brown Univ.)

“This change to the circadian rhythm is in contrast to the extrinsic demands of an early school start time, resulting in an overall decrease in total sleep duration. In essence, adolescents must be awake and learning at a time of day when their bodies should be sleeping.”—Melisa Moore, Ph.D., Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, The Sleep Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Lisa J. Meltzer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health. (Moore & Meltzer, The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens (2008) 9 Paediatric Respiratory Rev., p. 116.)

“Thus, early school start time—the main predictor of an earlier wake time among adolescents on school days—conflicts with adolescent circadian biology. [O]ur findings confirm that on school days, adolescents are obtaining less sleep then they are considered to need, and school start time is the factor with the greatest impact. If sleep loss is associated with impaired learning and health, then these data point to computer use, social activities and especially school start times as the most obvious intervention points.”—Kristen Knutson, Ph.D., M.A., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Chicago, Department of Medicine, Diane Lauderdale, Ph.D., M.A., M.A., Professor of Epidemiology, University of Chicago. (Knutson & Lauderdale, Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of bed time and wake time among U.S. adolescents aged 15–17 years (Mar. 2009) 154 J. Pediatrics 3, p. 430.)

“In sum, early school start times clearly contribute to sleep-deprivation in growing teens, making them even more vulnerable to all the challenges of adolescence, and increases the likelihood of accidents, psychological problems, and impaired learning in school.”—Edward O’Malley, Ph.D., former Assistant Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, former Director, Norwalk Hospital Sleep Disorders Center, Mary O’Malley, M.D., Ph.D., former Clinical Instructor, Department of Psychiatry, New York University, former Fellowship Director, Norwalk Hospital Sleep Disorders Center. (O’Malley & O’Malley, School Start Time and Its Impact on Learning and Behavior, publish. in, Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Ivanenko edit., Informa Healthcare 2008) p. 88.)

“Start times really do matter. We can see clear increases of academic performance from just starting school later.”—Finley Edwards, Ph.D., Clinical Assistant Professor of Economics, Baylor University. (Resmovits, Should A School Change Start Time For Sleep? Later School Start Times Improve Student Performance: Study (May 3, 2012) Huffington Post.)

“With approximately 100,000 students per year divided into three tiers, it would cost roughly $150 per student each year to move each student in the two earliest start-time tiers to the latest start time. In comparison, an experimental study of class sizes in Tennessee finds BurroughsClass3that reducing class size by one-third increases test scores by 4 percentile points in the first year at a cost of $2,151 per student per year (in 1996 dollars). These calculations, while very rough, suggest that delaying the beginning of the school day may produce a comparable improvement in test scores at a fraction of the cost.”—Finley Edwards, Ph.D., Clinical Assistant Professor of Economics, Baylor University. (Edwards, Do Schools Begin Too Early? (Summer 2012) 12 Education Next 3.)

“Early school start times reduce performance among disadvantaged students by an amount equivalent to having a highly ineffective teacher. [¶] The earliest school start times are associated with annual reductions in student performance of roughly 0.1 standard deviations for disadvantaged students, equivalent to replacing an average teacher with a teacher at the sixteenth percentile in terms of effectiveness.”—Brian A. Jacob, Ph.D., Walter H. Annenberg Professor of Education Policy, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Jonah E. Rockoff, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Finance and Economics, Columbia University. (Jacob & RockoffOrganizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments (Sept. 2011) Hamilton Project, Brookings Inst., pp. 5, 7.)

“Many adolescents are not getting the recommended hours of sleep they need on school nights. Insufficient sleep is associated with participation in a number of health–risk behaviors including substance use, physical fighting, and serious consideration of suicide attempt. Public health intervention is greatly needed, and the consideration of delayed school start times may hold promise as one effective step in a comprehensive approach to address this problem.”—Lela McKnight–Eily, Ph.D., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (CDC), Division of Adult and Community Health. (Insufficient sleep among high school students associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors (Sept. 26, 2011) CDC Online Newsroom.)

crosswalk -- look left“Changes in the circadian rhythms of adolescents cause many teens to fall asleep later, and early school start times prevent them from achieving adequate amounts of sleep. Previous work suggests that inadequate sleep leads to decreased academic performance, and later school start times are associated with longer sleep duration in adolescents. Our findings offer initial data of another benefit that might arise from later school start times: reduced pedestrian injury risk among adolescents walking to and from school.”—Aaron L. Davis, Ph.D., Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Kristin T. Avis, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, & David C. Schwebel, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham. (Davis, Avis, & Schwebel, in press, The Effects of Acute Sleep Restriction on Adolescents’ Pedestrian Safety in a Virtual Environment (2013) J. Adolescent Health, p. 5, citations omitted.)

“Sending kids to school at 7 a.m. is the equivalent of sending an adult to work at 4 in the morning[.] It’s almost abusive to them.”—William Dement, M.D., Sc.D., Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Division Chief, Stanford University Division of Sleep. (Diconsiglio, let me sleep! (Feb. 11, 2002) 134 N.Y. Times Upfront 9, p. 17.)

“Their biological rhythms are set in such a way that they really can’t wake up earlier. It’s like telling a person they have to jump eight feet. They just can’t.”—William Dement, M.D., Sc.D., Ph.D. (Fernandez, Politician Hopes to Reawaken Sleep Legislation (Mar. 25, 1999) SFGate.com.)

“During adolescence sleep becomes shallower and shifts to later hours, reflecting extensive brain rewiring. The frontal lobe – responsible for executive functions such as planning and inhibiting inappropriate behaviour – shows a marked fall in synapse density as the result of neuronal pruning. Teenagers are not just being lazy when they don’t want to get out of bed. Their adolescent biology may also prefer an adjustment of school hours. [¶] There is good evidence that young people don’t get enough sleep. When they live on an 8-hour sleep schedule they remain sleepy, and much more so than older people on the same schedule (Sleep, vol 33, p 211).”—Derk-Jan Dijk, Ph.D., M.Sc., Professor of Sleep and Physiology, University of Surrey, Director, Surrey Sleep Research Centre, Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer, Ph.D., M.Sc., Lecturer in Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, University of Surrey. (Dijk & Winsky-Sommerer, Sleep: How much we need and what keeps us awake (Feb. 9, 2012) New Scientist [registration required to access article].)

“Behavioral approaches to intervene by altering the psychosocial milieu or the youngster’s perception of it–perhaps, by encouraging ‘early to bed, early to rise’–may be difficult in the presence of a biologically driven phase preference. Furthermore, the widespread practice in U.S. school districts for school buses to run and for the opening bell to ring earlier at high schools than at junior high schools, and earlier in junior high schools than primary schools,school bus heads down methodist drive toward havelock on a foggy morning may run precisely counter to children’s biological needs. By the same token, teenagers faced with long school bus rides in addition to early starting time for school may confront incremental challenges in conflict with the biological propensities.”—Mary Carskadon, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Brown University School of Medicine, Director of Chronobiology and Sleep Research at Bradley Hospital, Cecilia Vieira, M.Sc., Center for Child and Adolescent Health Policy, Boston, Mass., Christine Acebo, Ph.D., Assistant Research Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University School of Medicine. (Carskadon, Vieira, & Acebo, Association between puberty and delayed phase preference (1993) 16 Sleep 3, p. 261.)

“[O]ur inability to change start times is … illustrative of a larger pattern of neglecting the wellbeing and potential of our young people.”—Erika Christakis, M.P.H, M.Ed., Yale Lecturer on Early Childhood Education, Yale Child Study Center, Nicholas Christakis, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Sol Goldman Family Professor of Social and Natural Science, Yale University. (Christakis & Christakis, Why Are We Depriving Our Teens of Sleep? (Nov. 18, 2011) Time.)

“Almost all teenagers, as they reach puberty, become walking zombies because they are getting far too little sleep[.] What good does it do to try to educate teenagers so early in the morning? You can be giving the most stimulating, interesting lectures to sleep-deprived kids early in the morning or right after lunch, when they’re at their sleepiest, and the overwhelming drive to sleep replaces any chance of alertness, cognition, memory or understanding.”—James Maas, Ph.D., Retired Professor of Psychology, Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow, Cornell University. (Carpenter, Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health (Oct. 2001) 32 Am. Psychological Assn. Monitor 9.)

“Sleep deficit is hampering high school achievement. Tiredness should not be confused with laziness. All teens should have the right to learn in an optimum environment. Rather than the ‘early to bed…’ adage, the new adage should be, ‘Wake up later and your grades will be greater.’ ”—James Maas, Ph.D. (Am. Lung Assoc., Sleep Disorders Section, School Daze: A Wake Up Call; Am. Lung Assoc. of New England, School Daze: A Wake Up Call (Sept. 2008) Healthy Air Matters, p. 4.)

clockface -- near midnight -- law.upenn.edu“Because academic clocks are in conflict with teenagers’ body clocks, teenagers are one of the most sleep-deprived [populations] in the country.”—James Maas, Ph.D. (Lim, Maas Pushes for Later Start Time at Schools (Feb. 26, 2009) Cornell Daily Sun.)

“Almost all teenagers in this country are sleep-deprived.”—Maida Chen, M.D., Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Assistant Director, Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center, Seattle Children’s Hospital. (Amodei, Powering up your teen’s brain (Feb. 26, 2008) ParentMap.)

“Sleep deprivation among adolescents appears to be, in some respects, the norm rather than the exception in contemporary society.”—Robert E. Roberts, Ph.D., Professor of Behavioral Sciences, Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Catherine R. Roberts, M.P.H., Ph.D., Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Hao T. Duong, M.D., Ph.D. (Roberts, Roberts, & Duong, Sleepless in adolescence: Prospective data on sleep deprivation, health and functioning (2009) 32 J. Adolescence, p. 1055.)

“Almost 80 percent of kids don’t get enough sleep. If they get one hour less than usual, they face significant academic and psychological consequences.”—David Palmiter, Psy.D., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Marywood University. (Heesen, Back to school: How to make the transition to high school a smooth one (Aug. 7, 2011) pennlive.com.)

Among adolescents, “daily feelings of anxiety, depression, and fatigue are the most consistent psychological outcomes of obtaining less sleep at night.”—Andrew Fuligini, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Christina Hardway, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan. (Fuligini & Hardway, Daily Variation in Adolescents’ Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being (2005) 16 J. Research on Adolescence 3, p. 371.)

”Chronically sleep-deprived teens often become so used to the feeling of sleepiness that they don’t recognize that they are settling for less than they are capable of in creativity, academic performance, and communication both in and out of the classroom.”—Paula K. Rauch, M.D., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Director, Marjorie E. Korff PACT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Chief, Child Psychiatry Consultation Liaison Service, Massachusetts General Hospital. (Rauch, What is Normal Sleep for Children and Adolescents? publish. in, Attention Deficit Disorder: Practical Coping Mechanisms (Fisher, edit., Informa Healthcare, 2nd ed. 2007) p. 175.)

“The results were stunning. There’s no other word to use. We didn’t think we’d get that much bang for the buck.”—Patricia Moss, M.A., Ph.D., Assistant Head of School and Head of the Latin Department, St. George’s School, Rhode Island, after start times were delayed from 8 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. (Tanner, Study Shows Teens Benefit from Later School Day (Jul. 5, 2010) Assoc. Press.)

ConvenienceRoadSign“You know a school or a school district is in trouble when the strategic plan follows the principles of the ABC School of Management–Administration By Convenience. One of the best indicators of an adult-focused environment, one that is practicing the principles of ABC, is when research is blatantly ignored in favor of current practice.“—Mel Riddile, M.Ed., Ed.D, Associate Director for High School Services, National Association of Secondary School Principals, former state (Virginia) and National Principal of the Year. (Riddile, Time Shift: Is your school jet-lagged? (Mar. 14, 2011) Nat. Assn. Secondary School Principals, Principal Difference.)

“It’s about adult convenience, it’s not about learning.”—Mel Riddile, M.Ed., Ed.D. (Tanner, Study Shows Teens Benefit from Later School Day (Jul. 5, 2010) Assoc. Press.)

“The results of this study demonstrated that current high school start times contribute to sleep deprivation among adolescents. Consistent with a delay in circadian sleep phase, students performed better later in the day than in the early morning. [¶] School schedules are forcing them to lose sleep and to perform academically when they are at their worst. [¶] Knowledge of the unusual weekday/weekend sleep phenomenon among adolescents could promote better family relationships if parents understood that sleeping late on weekends is part of their children’s inborn cycle and not lazy or antisocial behavior.”—Martha Hansen, M.S., Imke Janssen, M.S., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Preventative Medicine, Rush Medical College, Adam Schiff, B.S., Phyllis C. Zee, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurology, Neurobiology & Physiology, Director, Sleep Disorders Program, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Margarita L. Dubocovich, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, SUNY Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. (Hansen, Janssen, Schiff, Zee, & DubocovichThe Impact of School Daily Schedule on Adolescent Sleep (Jun. 2005) 115 Pediatrics 6, pp. 1555, 1560.)

“A good deal of research shows sleep is very important for memory and learning. The evidence fairly strongly suggests that later start times are better. Inherently, the majority of kids with a later start will get more sleep, which is beneficial to grades as well as being safer.”—Philip Fuller, M.D., Medical Director, Mary Washington Hospital Sleep and Wake Disorders Center. (Sklarew, Getting A’s with More Z’s: The fight for later school starts has backing from doctors and statistics (Nov. 2011) N. Va. Magazine.)

“Teachers, parents and administrators should embrace the later start times given the positive impact they have on students.”—Russell Rosenberg, Ph.D., Board-certified sleep specialist, recent past Chairman, National Sleep Foundation, a nonprofit organization supporting public education regarding sleep health and safety and sleep-related research, Founder and Director, Atlanta School of Sleep Medicine and Technology. (Rosenberg, More sleep means improved academic performance (Nov./Dec. 2012) 97 Am. Teacher 2, p. 3.)

Abusive, Nonsense, Deleterious, Cruel, & Nuts

“[T]hese early school start times are just abusive.”—Mary Carskadon, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Brown University, Director, Chronobiology and Sleep Research, Bradley Hospital. (Carpenter, Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health, supra, 32 Am. Psychological Assn. Monitor 9.)

Professor Till Roenneberg, Ph.D., Vice-Chair, Head of Human Chronobiology at the Institute of Medical Psychology in Germany, says it is “nonsense” to start school early in the day. “It is about the way our biological clock settles into light and dark cycles. This clearly becomes later and later in adolescence. [¶] Sleep is essential to consolidate what you learn.” (Ryan, Lie in for teenagers has positive results (Mar. 22, 2010) BBC News.)

Citing the “deleterious impact of school times on our teenagers,” Janet Croft, Ph.D., a senior epidemiologist at the CDC, referred to early high school start times as “an unrealistic burden on children and their families. … It can change lives to change school start times. They can’t concentrate that early when driving that early in the dark. They stay sleepy all the day.” (Park, Falling Asleep in Class? Blame Biology (Dec. 15, 2008) CNN.)

“It is cruel to impose a cultural pattern on teenagers that makes them underachieve. Most school regimes force teenagers to function at a time of day that is suboptimal and many university students are exposed to considerable dangers from sleep deprivation.”—Russell Foster, Ph.D., F.R.S., Head of Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Chair of Circadian Neuroscience, Oxford University. (Making teens start school in the morning is ‘cruel’ brain doctor claims (Dec. 1, 2007) London Evening Standard.)

“All of the research that has been done shows that older adolescents need more sleep than younger ones. They fall asleep later and wake up later to get the sleep they need. Despite these two facts, almost all districts start the senior high schools first. We’re sending them to school during the last one-third of their sleep cycles. It’s comparable to adults getting up at 3 a.m. or 4 a.m. You wouldn’t want to be making important decisions at that hour. I think it’s nuts. The sleep deficit builds up until they fall asleep at school or driving.”—Mark Mahowald, M.D., Professor of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, visiting Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University. (Delisio, It’s About Time (and Sleep): Making the Case for Starting School Later (Jun. 3, 2003) Education World.)
quill pen ink well -- bikesnobnyc

Four more from Professor Mahowald, two by William Shakespeare, and one each from Robert Frost and John Locke:

“Of all the arguments I’ve heard over school start-times, not one person has argued that children learn more at 7:15 a.m. than at 8:30.” (Bronson, Snooze or Lose (Oct. 7, 2007) New York Mag., web p. 3.)

“Most adolescents are sub-optimally alert in the morning. Yet their biological clocks program them to go to sleep late—too late to get an optimal amount of sleep before the next school day begins. If we as a society are sending kids to school to learn, it would be wise to send them in a condition that fosters learning.” (Lamberg, Teens aren’t lying — they really need to sleep later (Dec. 5, 1994) Am. Med. News, p. 24.)

“Not a single excuse [for not changing start times] we’ve heard relates to education. None of the excuses have the word ‘education’ in them. We should send kids to high school in a condition that promotes learning rather than interfering with it.” (Delisio, It’s About Time (and Sleep): Making the Case for Starting School Later, supra, Education World.)

“[S]chools are scheduled early for adult convenience: there’s no educational reason we start schools as early as we do.” (Bronson & Merryman, Nurture Shock: New Thinking About Children (Twelve Books 2009) p. 37, citing, rather than quoting, Professor Mahowald.)

“Sleep that knits up the ravell’d sleave of care,
The death of each day’s life, sore labour’s bath,
Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course,
Chief nourisher in life’s feast,—” (Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act II, Scene II, lines 34-37.)

“The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.” (Frost, Poetry of Robert Frost (Lathem, edit., Henry Holt and Co. 1969) p. 224 [from “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”].)

“The great cordial of nature is sleep. He that misses that, will suffer by it[.]”—John Locke. (Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education (Nu Vision Publications 2007) p. 24, original italics.)

“There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in the shallows and in miseries.
On such a full sea are we now afloat;
And we must take the current when it serves,
Or lose our ventures.” (Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act IV, Scene III, lines 218-224 [Marcus Brutus to Cassius; interpretation: timing is everything].)

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§ One Response to Notable Quotes

  • Stacy Simera says:

    “If there were a new educational program likely to boost test scores, reduce absenteeism, and generally make high school a more productive experience, school boards would be ready to jump on. Well, there is such a program, only its one that’s delivered by a bus driver, not a teacher…”
    Portland News Herald, September 11, 2012
    Editorial calling for all schools in Maine to adopt later start times for adolescents.

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