Endnotes & Appendices

Introduction: The Timing of Education

1. (Carskadon, Vieira, & Acebo, Association between puberty and delayed phase preference (1993) 16 Sleep 3, 258-262, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/carskadon-et-al-association-between-puberty-and-delayed-phase-preference.pdf, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=24756; see also, Taylor, Jenni, Acebo, & Carskadon, Sleep tendency during extended wakefulness: insights into adolescent sleep regulation and behavior (2005) 14 J. Sleep Research, pp. 239–244, http://www.sleepforscience.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/f572a152a25ab3109d5b33e9334d1785/pdf/journal_of_sleep_research_2005_taylor.pdf.)

1.5. (Andrade, Benedito-Silva, Domenice, Arnold, & Menna-Barreto, Sleep Characteristics of A Longitudinal Study (1993) 14 J. of Adolescent Health, pp. 401-406, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/andrade-et-al-sleep-characteristics-of-adolescents-a-longitudinal-study.pdf.)

2. (O’Malley & O’Malley, School Start Time and Its Impact on Learning and Behavior, publish. in, Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Ivanenko edit., Informa Healthcare 2008) pp. 79-94, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/omalley-omalley-school-start-time-and-its-impact-on-learning-and-behavior.pdf, or, http://www.neurofeedback.ch/downloads/Schlaf_und_Schule.pdf.) “It is almost assumed that insufficient sleep is the normal right of passage for high school and college students, but is this problem of insufficient sleep the beginning of problems with sleep in adults? Could insomnia, anxiety and depression, psychosomatic disorders and the widespread use of stimulants in adults have their genesis in the poor sleep patterns that develop in adolescence? The answers to these questions await further research.” (Id., p. 91; Feinberg, Davis, de Bie, Grimm, & Campbell, The maturational trajectories of NREM and REM sleep durations differ across adolescence on both school-night and extended sleep (2012) 302 Am. J. Physiology — Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology, pp. R533-R540, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/the-maturational-trajectories-of-nrem-and-rem-sleep-durations-differ-across-adolescence-on-both-school-night-and-extended-sleep.pdf.)

2.5. (Carskadon, Sleep in Adolescents: The Perfect Storm (Jun. 2011) 58 Pediatric Clinics N. Am. 3, pp. 1-13, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130594/ [author’s manuscript].)

3. (Later Start Times for High School Students (Jun. 2002) Univ. Minn., http://www.cehd.umn.edu/CAREI/resources/sleep/highlight-2002.html, or http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/later-start-times-for-high-school-students-_-cehd-_-u-of-m.pdf; see also, Harpaz, Starting School Later May Help Sleepy Teens (Jul. 25, 2013) Assoc. Press, http://news.yahoo.com/starting-high-school-later-may-help-sleepy-teens-164522292.html [Wahlstrom notes teens don’t get sleepy until around 10:45 p.m.].)

4. (Am. Lung Assoc., Sleep Disorders Section, School Daze: A Wake Up Call, http://www.lungusa.org/associations/charters/new-england/programs/msb/sleep-disorders-section.html; Am. Lung Assoc. of New England, School Daze: A Wake Up Call (Sept. 2008) Healthy Air Matters, p. 4, http://issuu.com/lungne/docs/healthy_air_matters_9-08, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/08-september-air-matters.pdf.)

5. (Carskadon, When Worlds Collide: Adolescent Need for Sleep Versus Societal Demands (Jan. 1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, pp. 348-353, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/carskadon-when-worlds-collide.pdf.)

6. (Hansen, Janssen, Schiff, Zee, & Dubocovich, The Impact of School Daily Schedule on Adolescent Sleep (Jun. 2005) 115 Pediatrics 6, pp. 1555-1561, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/hansen-et-al-the-impact-of-daily-school-schedule-on-adolescent-sleep.pdf, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/115/6/1555.pdf.) “Knowledge of the unusual weekday/weekend sleep phenomenon among adolescents could promote better family relationships if parents understood that sleeping late on weekends is part of their children’s inborn cycle and not lazy or antisocial behavior.” (Id., p. 1560.)

7. (Kruszelnicki, Teenage Sleep (May 3, 2007) ABC Science, http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2007/05/03/1913123.htm.)

8. (Backgrounder: Later School Start Times (2011) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/hot-topics/backgrounder-later-school-start-times.)

9. (Emsellem & Whiteley, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits (Joseph Hill Press 2006) pp. 11-22, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=11.)

10. (Minn. Med. Assn. Letter to Superintendent Dragseth (Apr. 4, 1994) Edina Pub. Schools, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/minn-med-assn-letter-to-superintendent-dragseth.pdf; see also, Thompson, Early school start times lead to lagging performance (Aug. 9, 2013) timesfreepress,  http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2013/aug/09/early-school-start-times-lead-lagging-performance/.)

11. (Dawson, Sleep and Adolescents (Jan. 2005) Counseling 101, http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/Sleep%20Disorders%20WEB.pdf.) “Lack of sleep is associated with academic and behavior problems, tardiness and absenteeism, reduced alertness, and heightened irritability.” (Id., p. 11; see also, Dawson, Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Information for Parents and Educators (2004) Nat. Assn. School Psychologist Resources,  http://www.nasponline.org/resources/health_wellness/sleepdisorders_ho.aspx; Peigneux, Melchior, Schmidt, Dang-Vu, Boly, Laureys, & Maque, Memory Processing During Sleep: Mechanisms and Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies (2004) 44-1/2 Psychologica Belgica, pp. 121-142, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/peigneux-et-al-memory-processing-during-sleep.pdf.)

12. (Wolfson & Carskadon, A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times (Mar. 2005) 89 Nat. Assn. of Secondary School Principals Bull. 642, pp. 47-66, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/wolfson-carskadon-a-survey-of-factors-of-influencing-high-school-start-times.pdf.)

13. (Lufi, Tzischinsky, & Hadar, Delaying School Starting Time by One Hour: Some Effects on Attention Levels in Adolescents (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 2, pp. 137-143, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/lufi-et-al-delaying-school-starting-time-by-one-hour-some-effects-on-attention-levels-in-adolescents.pdf; see also, Delaying School Start Time by One Hour Positively Affects Adolescents’ Cognitive Performance (Jun. 12, 2008) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=932; Klein, Planning Middle School Schedules for Improved Attention and Achievement (Sept. 2004) 48 Scandinavian J. Educational Research 4, pp. 441-450, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/klein-planning-middle-school-schedules-for-improved-attention-and-achievement.pdf; see also, Macleans.ca, Why you should let your teenager sleep in (Feb. 11, 2011) On Campus, http://oncampus.macleans.ca/education/2011/02/03/why-you-should-let-your-teenager-sleep-in/ [Canadian high school in second year of 10 a.m. start time with students appearing to show improved academic outcomes].)

14. (Start School Later in the Morning, Say Sleepy Teens (May 21, 2007) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070520130046.htm.)

15. (Mitru, Millrood, & Mateika, The Impact of Sleep on Learning and Behavior in Adolescents (Jun. 2002) 104 Teachers College Record 4, pp. 704-726, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/mitru-and-millrood-the-impact-of-sleep-on-learning-and-behavior-in-adolescents.pdf.)

15.5. (Clarkson, Resetting the Clock: High School Start Times (Apr. 1, 2013) Wash. Parent, http://www.washingtonparent.com/articles/1304/school-open-times.php.)

16. (Carpenter, Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health (Oct. 2001) 32 Am. Psychological Assn. Monitor 9, http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct01/sleepteen.aspx.)

17. (Ryan, Lie-in for teenagers has positive results (Mar. 22, 2010) BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/8579951.stm.)

18. (Park, Falling Asleep in Class? Blame Biology (Dec. 15, 2008) CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/12/12/sleep.teenagers.school/index.html.)

19. (Making teens start school in the morning is ‘cruel,’ brain doctor claims (Dec. 1, 2007) London Evening Standard, http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23381421-making-teens-start-school-in-the-morning-is-cruel-brain-doctor-claims.do.) Professor Russell Foster, Head of Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, and Chair of Circadian Neuroscience, Oxford University, proposes classes not begin until the afternoon. “It is cruel to impose a cultural pattern on teenagers that makes them underachieve.” (Ibid; see also, Head urges lie-ins for teenagers (Mar. 9, 2009) BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/tyne/7932108.stm [includes hyperlink to brief audio interview with Professor Foster]; see also, Why do teenagers sleep late? (Mar. 9, 2009) BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/7932950.stm.)

20. (Delisio, It’s About Time (and Sleep): Making the Case for Starting School Later (Jun. 3, 2003) Ed. World, http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin314.shtml.)

20.5. (School and Staffing Survey, Public School Start Time 2011-2012, Nat. Center for Education Statistics, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/nces-start-time-data-2011-12.xlsx, http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/tables/sass1112_201381_s1n.asp.) Of 1,368 parents of students in grades 1-12 surveyed in a recent Harvard study, one-third (33%) report that their child’s school day starts before 8 a.m. (Education and Health in Schools: A Survey of Parents (Sept. 2013) Harvard School of Pub. Health, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/files/2013/12/Education-and-Health-in-Schools_Sept-2013.pdf.)

21. (Millman, edit., Excessive Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment Strategies (Jun. 2005)115 Pediatrics 6, pp. 1774-1786, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/millman-2005.pdf.) “The circadian pacemaker is synchronized to the 24-hour day through external time cues from the environment (zeitgebers). The strongest of these zeitgebers is exposure to the light/dark cycle. Phototransduction from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nuclei occurs primarily via the retinohypothalamic tract. Entrainment of the circadian system to Earth’s 24-hour day provides temporal balance between endogenous activities and the external environment such that sleeping/waking behavior, hormonal activity, temperature fluctuations, and neurobehavioral functioning occur in proper synchrony with the environmental day.” (Id., p. 1775.)

22. (Wolfson, Adolescent Sleep Update: Narrowing the Gap between Research and Practice (Mar./Apr. 2007) Sleep Rev.: J. for Sleep Specialists, http://archive.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2007-03_01.asp [html], http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/wolfson-adolescent-sleep-update.pdf [pdf].)

23. (Fredriksen, Rhodes, Reddy, & Way, Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the Effects of Adolescent Sleep Loss During the Middle School Years (Jan./Feb. 2004) 75 Child Development 1, pp. 84–95, http://www.rhodeslab.org/files/sleepless.pdf.) “[A]ny attempts to improve the quality of life for adolescents and reduce their risk to a range of negative health, academic, and emotional outcomes should consider the importance of a good night’s sleep. Teachers could devote attention to the topic in health and physical education classes, and parents could encourage earlier bedtimes, especially on school nights.” (Id., p. 94.)

24. (Carrell, Maghakian, & West, A’s from Zzzz’s? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Performance of Adolescents (Aug. 2011) 3 Am. Economic J.: Economic Policy 3, pp. 62-81, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/carrell.pdf [published version], http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/scarrell/sleep.pdf [draft version].)

25. (2011 Sleep in America Poll: Communications Technology in the Bedroom (Mar. 2011) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/sleepinamericapoll/SIAP_2011_Summary_of_Findings.pdf [7 percent of 13 to 18-year-olds report getting less than 6 hours of sleep; 54 percent wake up between 5 a.m. and 6:30 a.m. during the week].)

26. (Eaton, McKnight-Eily, Lowry, Croft, Presley-Cantrell, & Perry, Prevalence of Insufficient, Borderline, and Optimal Hours of Sleep Among High School Students – United States, 2007 (2010) 46 J. Adolescent Health, pp. 399-401, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/eaton-et-al-prevalence-of-insufficient-borderline-and-optimal-hours-of-sleep-among-high-school-students.pdf; see also, Duval, Most High School Students Are Sleep Deprived (Jan. 10, 2010) Center for Advancing Health, http://www.cfah.org/hbns/2010/most-high-school-students-are-sleep-deprived#.UXnNWysjofI.) Adolescent sleep requirements appear to be universal. (See, e.g., ns. 2, pp. 86, 87; 5; 13; 37, p. 19; 112, 193, 253, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259; Emsellem & Whiteley, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, supra, pp. 225-230, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=225) “The sleep needs of adolescents appear similar across cultures, but there are … cultural differences in sleep patterns reflecting differences in parental and peer control, in leisure activities and in schooling.” (N. 59, p. 3; see, e.g., LeBourgeois, Giannotti, Cortesi, Wolfson, & Harsh, The Relationship Between Reported Sleep Quality and Sleep Hygiene in Italian and American Adolescents (Jan. 2005) 115 Pediatrics 1, pp. 257-265, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/lebourgeois-et-al-the-relationship-between-sleep-quality-and-sleep-hygiene-in-italian-and-american-adolescents.pdf.)

27. (Roberts, Roberts, & Duong, Sleepless in adolescence: Prospective data on sleep deprivation, health and functioning (2009) 32 J. Adolescence, pp. 1045-1057, http://www.nutrociencia.com.br/upload_files/artigos_download/slepless.pdf, or, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/roberts-et-al-sleepless-in-adolescence.pdf.)

28. (Knutson & Lauderdale, Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of bed time and wake time among U.S. adolescents aged 15–17 years (Mar. 2009) 154 J. Pediatrics 3, pp. 426–430, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/knutson-et-al-sociodemographic-and-behavioral-predictors-of-bed-time-and-wake-time-among-u-s-adolescents-aged-15-to-17-years.pdf, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783185/ [author’s manuscript].)

29. (Willis, How Students’ Sleepy Brains Fail Them (Sum. 2009) Kappa Delta Pi Record, pp. 158-162, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/willis-how-students-sleepy-brains-fail-them.pdf.) Sleep-deprived children display lower brain activity while working on math problems than they do when rested, and they make more mistakes and omit more answers on tests. (Id., p. 159; Drummond, Brown, Stricker, Buxton, Wong, & Gillin, Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction (Dec. 16, 1999) 10 Neuroreport 18, pp. 3745-3748, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-deprivation-induced-reduction-in-cortical-functional-response-to-serial-subtraction.pdf.)

30. (Wolfson, Spaulding, Dandrow, & Baroni, Middle School Start Times: The Importance of a Good Night’s Sleep for Young Adolescents (Aug. 15, 2007) 5 Behavioral Sleep Med. 3, pp. 194-209, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/wolfson-et-al-2007-middle-school-start-times.pdf.)

31. (Danner & Phillips, Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor Vehicle Crashes (Dec. 2008) 4 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 6, pp. 533–535, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603528/.)

32. (School Start Time and Sleep (2010) St. John’s Med. Center, http://www.tetonhospital.org/sleeplab/school-start-times.) It might be noted that while the popular proverb “Early to bed, early to rise, …” appears in “Poor Richard’s Almanac,” it was not actually Ben Franklin who coined the phrase. (Mieder, De Proverbio (1995) No. 1, http://www.deproverbio.com/DPjournal/DP,1,1,95/FRANKLIN.html.)

33. (Cortez de Sousa, Mazzilli, Louzada, & Macêdo de Azevedo, Sleep-Wake Cycle Irregularity and Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents on Schooldays and on Vacation Days (Feb./Mar. 2007) 2 Sleep Science 1, pp. 30-35, http://www.sleepscience.com.br/sleepscience/pdf/articles/vol2/SleepScience_vol2_issue01_art05.pdf.)

34. (Wolfson & Carskadon, Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal (2003) 7 Sleep Medicine Rev. 6, pp. 491-506, http://web.mit.edu/writing/2010/July/Wolfson&Carskadon2003.pdf.)

35. (Wolfson & Carskadon, Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents (Aug. 1998) 69 Child Development 4, pp. 875-887, http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/s/e/seb302/wolfson_carskadon.pdf.)

36. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop (Graham, edit., Nat. Academies Press 2000) p. 6, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=6.)

37. (Wahlstrom, Changing Times: Findings From the First Longitudinal Study of Later High School Start Times (Dec. 2002) 86 Nat. Assn. Secondary School Principals Bull. 633, pp. 3-21, http://www.cehd.umn.edu/carei/publications/documents/Bulletin200212Wahlstrom.pdfhttp://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/139295/1/2002%20NASSP%20Bulletin%2c%20Vol.%2086%20No.%20633.pdf.)

38. (CarskadonWolfson, Acebo, Tzischinsky, & Seifer, Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days (Dec. 15, 1998) 21 Sleep 8, pp. 871-881, http://www.sleepforscience.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/5598e427689cd7382cdb641dbb672c2a/pdf/carskadonschltrans1998.pdf.)

39. (Dexter, Bijwadia, Schilling, & Applebaugh, Sleep, Sleepiness, and School Start Times: A Preliminary Study (2003) 102 Wis. Medical J. 1, 42-46, http://www.wisconsinmedicalsociety.org/_WMS/publications/wmj/pdf/102/1/44.pdf.)

40. (Lund, Reider, Whiting, & Prichard, Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in a Large Population of College Students (Feb. 2010) 46 J. Adolescent Health 2, 124-132, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/lund-reider-whiting-and-prichard-sleep-patterns-and-predictors-of-distrubed-sleep-in-a-large-population-of-college-students.pdf.) A study of 1,125 college students found the majority reported chronically restricted sleep. Mean total sleep time was 7.02 hours. (Ibid.)

41. (Owens, Belon, & Moss, Impact of Delaying School Start Time on Adolescent Sleep, Mood, and Behavior (Jul. 2010) 164 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 7, 608-614, http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=383436; see, Lamberg, Later High School Start Times May Benefit Teens’ Mental Health (Aug. 20, 2010) 45 Psychiatric News 16, p. 15-25, http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsarticle.aspx?articleid=113660; Dooren, Later Start to School Boosts Teens’ Health (Jul. 6, 2010) Wall St. J., http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704535004575349182901006438?mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424052748704535004575349182901006438.html; see also, The Madeline Brand Show, Parenting on the Edge: schools adjust to teens who like to stay up late and sleep in (Aug. 15, 2011) KPCC, http://www.scpr.org/programs/madeleine-brand/2011/08/15/20279/parenting-on-the-edge-why-school-should-start-late/ [includes link to audio interview with John Cline, Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine]; Morning Edition, Survey: Teenagers Are Sleep Deprived (Sept. 6, 2010) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129677180 [Dr. Jason Eberhart-Phillips, Kansas’ former state health officer, asserts the state should push back the starting time for teenagers’ classes].)

42. (Am. Academy Sleep Med. (Jun. 9, 2008) Students with a Delayed School Start Time Sleep Longer, Report Less Daytime Sleepiness, http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=869.)

43. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 210, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=210.) Although Dr. Emsellem notes an 8:15 a.m. start time for Arlington, Virginia, public school system high schools (ibid.), the current start time is 8:19 a.m.

44. (Edwards, Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance (Dec. 2012) 31 Economics of Education Rev. 6, pp. 970-983, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/edwards-early-to-rise-the-effect-of-daily-start-times-on-academic-performance-published-version.pdf; see also, Edwards, Working Paper, Early to Rise: The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance, (Mar. 2011) Univ. Ill., Urbana-Champaign, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/edwards-early-to-rise-mar-2011-the-effect-of-daily-start-times-on-academic-performance.pdf [draft copy]; see also, n. 354.)

45. (Lamberg, High Schools Find Later Start Time Helps Students’ Health and Performance (2009) 301 J. Am. Medical Assn. 21, 2200-2201, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/lamberg-schoolstarttimejama0906031.pdf [“[T]rend lines show grades rise when schools open later. We never see trend lines suggesting grades go down.”].)

46. (Vorona, Szklo-Coxe, Wu, Dubik, Zhao, & Ware, Dissimilar Teen Crash Rates in Two Neighboring Southeastern Virginia Cities with Different High School Start Times (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 2, 145-151, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077341/; see also, Pizza, Contardi, Antognini, Zagoraiou, Borrotti, Mostacci, Mondini, & Cirignotta, Sleep Quality and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Adolescents (Feb. 15, 2010) 6 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 1, 41-45, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823274/.)

47. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 214, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=214.)

48. (Trudeau, High Schools Starting Later to Help Sleepy Teens (Jan. 18, 2007) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6896471; see also, Changing School Start Times: Jessamine County, Kentucky (2005) Nat. Sleep Foundation, Sleep for Teens, http://www.sleepinfairfax.org/docs/CS.Jessamine.pdf.)

49. (Jacob & Rockoff, Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments (Sept. 2011) Hamilton Project, Brookings Inst., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/jacob-and-rockoff-organizing-schools-to-improve-student-achievement.pdf [full paper],  http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2011/09/organization-jacob-rockoff [links to abstract, policy brief, and full paper]; see also, Buckhalt, Insufficient Sleep and the Socioeconomic Achievement Gap (Mar. 2011) 5 Child Development Perspectives 1, pp. 59-65, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/buckhalt-insufficient-sleep-and-the-socioeconomic-status-achievement-gap.pdf.)

50. (H.Res. No. 296, 105th Cong., 2nd Sess. (1998), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-105hconres296ih, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-105hconres296ih/pdf/BILLS-105hconres296ih.pdf.) In 1998, Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren introduced a House Concurrent Resolution “expressing the sense of Congress” that secondary schools should begin after 9 a.m. (Ibid.) The same year, Lofgren introduced a bill to provide school districts with $25,000 in federal grants to help cover the administrative costs of adjusting secondary school start times to 9 a.m. (H.Res. No. 4131, 105th Cong., 2nd Sess. (1998), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/pagedetails.action?packageId=BILLS-105hr4131ih.) When those efforts failed, Lofgren reintroduced the bill in 1999 (n. 574; see also, n. 184.) and 2001, again to no avail. (H.Res. No. 1313, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-107hr1313ih/pdf/BILLS-107hr1313ih.pdf.) In 2003, Lofgren modified the Resolution to offer the “sense” of Congress that high schools should begin no earlier than 8:30 a.m., again without success. (N. 572.) In 2005, 2007, and 2009, Lofgren returned to form, again seeking Congress’ sense that secondary schools should begin after 9 a.m. (H.Res. No. 200, 109th Cong., 1st Sess. (2005), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-109hconres200ih/pdf/BILLS-109hconres200ih.pdf; H.Res. No. 227, 110th Cong., 1st Sess. (2007), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-110hconres227ih/pdf/BILLS-110hconres227ih.pdf; n. 573; see also, Rep. Lofgren Webpage, Congresswoman Lofgren Urges Congress to ‘Wake-Up’ to the Problems of Adolescents Not Getting Enough [Sleep], http://lofgren.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=365990.) Legislation promoted at the state level is referenced in notes 51568, 568.4, 568.5, 568.6568.7, 568.8, 569, 570, and, 571, infra.

51. (Cal. Assn. Student Councils (2004) Cal. Student Advisory Board on Legislation in Education, School Starting Time, pp. 10-11, http://www.casc.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/sable2004.pdf.) In 2004 the California Student Advisory Board on Legislation in Education recommended delaying start times throughout the state to 8:40 a.m. The student board noted the detrimental effects of early start times on attendance, academic performance, and behavior. The board’s fiscal analysis predicted that delaying start times would increase attendance “resulting in more ADA money for schools” and test scores “will rise. Higher test scores (API) will insure greater levels of federal funding.” The students concluded, “even with the implementation of state-sponsored pilot programs, the costs will be far outweighed by the benefits of the program.” (Id., pp. 10-11.) The Student Advisory Board’s proposal was not implemented.

52. (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Online Newsroom (Sept. 26, 2011) Insufficient sleep among high school students associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors, http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/a0926_insufficient_sleep.html; see also,  Bradley & Green, Do Health and Education Agencies in the United States Share Responsibility for Academic Achievement and Health? A Review of 25 Years of Evidence About the Relationship of Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Health Behaviors (2013) 52 J. Adolescent Health, pp. 523-532, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/bradley-et-al-do-health-and-education-agencies-in-the-us-share-responsibility-for-academic-achievement-and-health.pdf, or, http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(13)00050-5/fulltext.)

53. Eaton, McKnight-Eily, Lowry, Croft, Presley-Cantrell, & Perry, Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students (Aug. 5, 2011) Preventive Med., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/relationships-between-hours-of-sleep-and-health-risk-behaviors-in-us-adolescent-students.pdfNotices (Jun. 7, 2010) 75 Fed. Register 108, 32190, http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-13519.pdf.)

54. (Adolescent Sleep Working Group, Committee on Adolescence, & Council on School Health, School Start Times for Adolescents (Aug. 25, 2014) Pediatrics, pp. 642-649, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/134/3/642.fullhttps://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/aap-school-start-times-for-adolescents.pdfhttp://m.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/134/3/642.full; see also, Press Release, Let Them Sleep: AAP Recommends Delaying Start Times of Middle and High Schools to Combat Teen Sleep Deprivation (Aug. 25, 2014) Am. Academy of Pediatrics, http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/Let-Them-Sleep-AAP-Recommends-Delaying-Start-Times-of-Middle-and-High-Schools-to-Combat-Teen-Sleep-Deprivation.aspx; Kennedy, Sounding alarm on need for later school start times (Aug. 25, 2014) 35 AAP News 1, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/kennedy-sounding-alarm-on-need-for-later-school-start-times.pdf, http://aapnews.aappublications.org/content/35/9/1.2.)

55. (Working Group on Problem Sleepiness (Aug. 1997) Nat. Center on Sleep Disorders Research, Nat. Inst. Health, pp. 1-12, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/sleep/pslp_wg.pdf; ee also, Teen Sleep: Why is your teen so tired?, Mayo Clinic, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/teens-health/CC00019.)

56. (Problem Sleepiness (Sept. 1997) Nat. Inst. Health, No. 97-4071, pp. 1-4, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/sleep/pslp_fs.pdf.) “The need for sleep may be 9 hours or more per night as a person goes through adolescence. At the same time, many teens begin to show a preference for a later bed time, which may be due to a biological change. Teens tend to stay up later but have to get up early for school, resulting in their getting much less sleep than they need.” (Id., p. 2, emphasis in original.)

57. (Educating Youth About Sleep and Drowsy Driving (Sept. 1998) Nat. Inst. Health, pp. 9-17, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/sleep/dwydrv_y.pdf.) “For most teens, the school start time means a nonnegotiable wake-up time. Most adolescents would sleep significantly longer if they could. [¶] Older adolescents … are staying up later, rising earlier, and incurring sleep debts. As a result, teachers end up with sleepy students, and teens live under a ‘dark cloud of insufficient sleep’ that may include microsleeps, attention lapses, decreased reaction times, impaired divergent thinking skills, impaired mental functioning, low mood, and a higher rate of accidents and injuries….” (Id., pp. 10, 11.)

58. (Wahlstrom, The Prickly Politics Of School Starting Times (Jan. 1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, pp. 344-347, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/wahlstrom-the-prickly-politics-of-school-start-times.pdf.)

59. (Dornbusch, Sleep and Adolescence: A Social Psychologist’s Perspective, publish. in, Adolescent Sleep Patterns, Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences (Carskadon, edit., Cambridge Univ. Press 2002) pp. 1-3, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/dornbusch-sleep-and-adolescence-a-social-psychologists-perspective.pdf, or, http://assets.cambridge.org/97805216/42910/sample/9780521642910ws.pdf.)

60. (RiddileTime Shift: Is your school jet-lagged? (Mar. 14, 2011) Nat. Assn. Secondary School Principals, The Principal Difference, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/c2bb-blog-archive-c2bb-time-shift_-is-your-school-jet-lagged_.pdf, or, http://nasspblogs.org/principaldifference/index.php/2011/03/time-shift-is-your-school-jet-lagged/; see also, Walker, Impact of Starting Time on High School Students (Jul. 26, 2010) The Principals’ Partnership, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/high-school-startingtimes1.pdf.)

61 (Wolf-Meyer, School start times: Why so rigid? (Sept. 19, 2012) N=1, http://nequalsone.wordpress.com/2012/09/19/school-start-times-why-so-rigid/.)

62. (Bronson & Merryman, Nurture Shock: New Thinking About Children (Twelve Books 2009), http://www.progresivno.org/download/attachments/2162934/Nurture+shock.PDF?version=1&modificationDate=1297352858000.) “[S]chools are scheduled early for adult convenience: there’s no educational reason we start schools as early as we do.” (Id., p. 37, citing Professor Mark Mahowald.) “It’s about adult convenience, it’s not about learning.” (N. 242, quoting Mel Riddile, M.Ed., Ed.D.; see also, Will, How to ruin a child: Too much esteem, too little sleep (Mar. 4, 2010) Wash. Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/03/AR2010030303075.html.)

63. (Kirby, Maggi, & D’Angiulli, School Start Times and the Sleep–Wake Cycle of Adolescents: A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence (Mar. 2011) 40 Educational Researcher 2, pp. 56-61, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/school-start-times-and-the-sleep-wake-cycle-of-adolescents11.pdf.)

64. (Gibson, Powles, Thabane, O’Brien, Molnar, Trajanovic, Ogilvie, Shapiro, Yan, & Chilcott-Tanser, “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students (May 2006) 6 Bio Med Central Pub. Health 116, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1464124/; see also, Seugnet, Suzuki, Donlea, Gottschalk, & Shaw, Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila (Feb. 2011) 34 J. Sleep 2, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28020) Dills & Hernandez-Julian, Course Scheduling and Academic Performance (Dec. 2008) 27 Economics of Education Rev. 6, 646-654, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dills-course-scheduling-and-academic-performance.pdf.) Researchers studying the effects of later class times on Clemson University undergraduates found students’ grades are higher in courses taken later in the day.Early morning classes are particularly bad for students’ grades.Classes that meet more often during the week also tend to have higher grades. (Ibid.) Canadian researchers have suggested later start times for undergraduates may also be appropriate. (N. 64.) In the U.S., Duke University no longer schedules any 8 a.m. classes. “They’re coming in to see us, and they’re ragged,” said Assistant Dean Ryan Lombardi. Duke also has offered students individual health assessments to help them learn what to eat and how many hours to sleep. (N. 186; Campus Observer, A Nap A Day (Jan./Feb. 2008) 94 Duke Mag. 1, http://dukemagazine.duke.edu/article/a-nap-a-day; see also, Lima, Medeiros, & Araujo, Sleep-wake pattern of medical students: early versus late class starting time (Nov. 2002) 35 Brazilian J. Medical & Biological Research 11, 1373-1377, http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=s0100-879×2002001100016&script=sci_arttext; see also, BaHammam, Alaseem, Alzakri, Almeneessier, & Sharif, The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study (2012) 12 BMC Med. Educ. 61, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419622/.) A recent study, however, found later starting times associated with increased drinking and lower grades among college students. (Am. Academy Sleep Med. (Jun. 08, 2011) College students sleep longer but drink more and get lower grades when classes start later, http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=2327.)

65. (Kelley, Lockley, Foster, & Kelley, Synchronizing education to adolescent biology: ‘let teens sleep, start school later’ (Aug. 1, 2014) Learning, Media and Technology, pp. 1-17, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/kelley-et-al-synchronizing-education-to-adolescent-biology-let-teens-sleep-start-school-later.pdf.)

67. (Owens, Adolescent Sleep Working Group, & Committee on Adolescence, Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Update on Causes and Consequences (Aug. 25, 2014) 134 Pediatrics 3, pp. e921-e928, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/owens-insufficient-sleep-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-an-update-on-causes-and-consequences.pdf.)

68. (Eight Major Obstacles to Changing School Start Times (2011) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/hot-topics/eight-major-obstacles-delaying-school-start-times.) As noted in the main text (§ IV, supra), economists point out that in tiered busing systems, the change to later start times should involve little or no additional cost (n. 49, p. 9), as was the case in both Edina and Minneapolis. (N. 37, p. 19.) The change to delayed start times in Wilton, Connecticut, also had no impact on transportation costs. (N. 654.) West Des Moines Community Schools in Iowa was able to actually reduce the number of buses needed by changing the start times of all three tiers of their school system. Kay Rosene, Director of Community relations for West Des Moines Community Schools, says the switch gave the district a windfall of about $700,000 annually. According to Ms. Rosene, the savings “meant that other potential cuts in programming or curriculum offerings would not occur.” (N. 48.) Similarly, three Moore County, North Carolina high schools delayed start times to 9 a.m. from 8:15 a.m., saving $600,000 in transportation costs. (Sharpe, School Start Times to Change (Jun. 9, 2011) The Pilot; Lentz, Schools Change Some Start Times (Jun. 10, 2012) The Pilot; Many School Start, Dismissal Times for 2012-2013 to Change, Moore County Schools Community Relations, [high school start times later advanced to 8:30 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. due to conflicts with extracurricular activities posed by the 4 p.m. dismissal time].) On the other hand, Issaquah School District No. 411 found adjusting to “ideal” start times cost prohibitive at over five million dollars. (Issaquah School Dist. Bell Time Study Committee, Presentation of 2005 Final Committee Report, www.issaquah.wednet.edu/documents/bell/bellpresentation.pdf.) In one St. Louis school district, the costs related to the addition of one bus. (Start Times & Length of School Day (Nov. 1, 2010) Parkway School Dist. Task Force Rep., http://www.pkwy.k12.mo.us/projectParkway/file/Start%20Time%20and%20Length%20of%20Day%20Task%20Force%20FINAL%20REPORTpdf.pdf.) The Quakertown Community School District was unable to afford the $400,000 in transportation costs required to adjust middle school start times from 7:10 a.m. to 7:40 a.m. (Rizzo, Final Quakertown budget closes Haycock ES (Jun. 10, 2011) The Morning Call, http://www.mcall.com/news/breaking/mc-quakertown-school-budget-20110610,0,5483327.story.) In Utah, the Salt Lake City School District spent a year studying possible ways to delay high school start times, but scrapped the idea in 2000 after an estimate set the transportation cost at $2.1 million the first year and $727,000 every year after. Still, a task force found that there would be no additional busing cost to delay by 30 minutes the start times of all elementary, middle and high schools. (Winters, High school start times can make it tough to get both A’s and Zzzs (Mar. 24, 2011) Salt Lake Tribune, http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/51389893-78/sleep-start-wake-later.html.csp; additional examples available, infra, Appendix A, Schools Recently Delaying Start Times, etc.; cf. Appendix B, infraSchools Recently Advancing Start Times, etc.Innovations High School, an Early College High School in the Salt City School District, was launched in 2012 and allows flexible scheduling for students. Principal Kenneth Grover reports that most students arrive at about 8:45 a.m. (Moulton, Z’s to A’s: Do Utah students suffer from lack of sleep? (Aug. 11, 2013) Salt Lake Tribune, http://m.sltrib.com/sltrib/mobile3/56702549-219/backtoschool-says-schools-start.html.csp.) As discussed above (§ IV, supra), when schools push back K-12 start times from“from roughly 8 a.m. to 9 a.m.[,]” Brookings Institute economists anticipate a 9 to 1 benefits to costs ratio for the district. (N. 49, pp. 5-11, 21, n. 7.)

69. (Keller, Smith, Gilbert, Bi, Haak, & Buckhalt, Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky (Jun. 2014) J. Educational Psychology, pp. 1-10, http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/edu-a0037195.pdf; see, Press Release, Early Elementary School Start Times Tougher on Economically Advantaged Children, Study Finds (Jun. 17, 2014) Am. Psychological Assn., http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/06/school-start-times.aspx; see also, Mitchell, Hobcraft, McLanahan, Siegeld, Berg, Brooks-Gunne, Garfinkel, & Nottermand, Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length (Apr. 22, 2014) 111 PNAS 16, pp. 5944–5949, http://www.pnas.org/content/111/16/5944.full.)

I.   The Prevalence of Restricted Weeknight Sleep Among Adolescents

96. (Amodei, Powering up your teen’s brain (Feb. 26, 2008) ParentMap, http://www.parentmap.com/article/powering-up-your-teens-brain.)

97. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance–United States, 2007 (Jun. 6, 2008) 57 Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Rep. SS04, pp. 1-131, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss5704.pdf, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5704a1.htm, http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/cdcreports.htm [MMWR Surveillance Summaries, by date].)

98. (Teens and Sleep Poll a Wake-Up Call, Pediatric Sleep Experts Say (Mar. 2006) Brown Univ., http://brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/2005-06/05-100.html.)

99. (2011 YRBS Data User’s Guide (Jun. 2012) Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/data/yrbs/2011/YRBS_2011_National_User_Guide.pdf.)

100. (Noland, Price, Dake, & Telljohann, Adolescents’ Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep (2009) 79 J. School Health 5, pp. 224-230, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/noland-et-al.pdf.)

101. (Sleep In America Poll: Summary of Findings (2006) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/2006_summary_of_findings.pdf; see also, Sleep in America Poll: Highlights and Key Findings (2006) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/Highlights_facts_06.pdf.)

102. (Interview with Mary Carskadon (2002) Frontline: Inside the Teenage Brain, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/interviews/carskadon.html; see also, From Z’zzz’s to A’s (Jan. 31, 2002) Frontline: Inside the Teenage Brain , http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/video/flv/generic.html?s=frol02sfacq392&continuous=1id., Interview with Carlyle Smith [transcript], http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/interviews/smith.htmlid., Adolescents and Sleep, Frontline Producer Sarah Spinks, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/from/sleep.html.)

103. (Hagenauer, Perryman, Lee, & Carskadon, Adolescent Changes in the Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep (Jun. 2009) 31 Developmental Neuroscience 4, 276-284, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820578/.)

104. (Sadeh, Maturation of Normal Sleep Patterns – Childhood through Adolescence, publish. in., Sleep and Breathing in Children: A Developmental Approach (Marcus, Carroll, Donnelly, & Loughlin, edits., Informa Healthcare 2000), http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sadeh-maturation-of-normal-sleep-patterns-childhood-through-adolescence.pdf.)

105. (Calamaro, Mason, & Ratcliffe, Adolescents Living the 24/7 Lifestyle: Effects of Caffeine and Technology on Sleep Duration and Daytime Functioning (Jun. 2009) 123 Pediatrics 6, e1005-e1010, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/123/6/e1005.pdf; see also, Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds (Jan. 2010) Kaiser Foundation, http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/8010.pdf; Am. Academy Sleep Med. (May 14, 2008) Excessive Mobile Phone Use Affects Sleep in Teens, http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=870Strasburger, School Daze: Why are Teachers and Schools Missing the Boat on Media? (Jun. 2012) 59 Pediatric Clinics N. Am. 3, 705-712, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/strasburger-children-adolescents-and-the-media.pdf.)

106. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra, p. 18, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=18.)

107. (Boergers, Gable, & Owens, Later School Start Time Is Associated with Improved Sleep and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents (Jan. 2014) 35 J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 1, pp. 11-17, http://journals.lww.com/jrnldbp/Fulltext/2014/01000/Later_School_Start_Time_Is_Associated_with.2.aspxhttp://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/boergers-et-al-later-school-start-time-is-associated-with-improved-sleep-and-daytime-functioning-in-adolescents.pdf.)

107.5. (D’Andrea & Amos, A look at adolescent sleep needs: Waking up to the unique sleep needs of adolescents (Oct. 1, 2012) Contemporary Pediatrics, http://contemporarypediatrics.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-pediatrics/news/modernmedicine/modern-medicine-feature-articles/look-adolescent-sleep-n?id=&pageID=1&sk=&date=.)

108. (AFP, Video gaming teens sleep less: Study (May 16, 2011) Phys. Org., http://phys.org/news/2011-05-video-gaming-teens.html; see also, Czeisler, Perspective: Casting light on sleep deficiency (May 23, 2013) 492 Nature S13.)

110. (Carskadon & Acebo, Regulation of Sleepiness in Adolescents: Update, Insights, and Speculation (2002) 25 Sleep 6, pp. 606-614, http://www.sleepforscience.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/5902f7acc5b3ecffd97939c19c98bf3d/pdf/sleep_2002_carskadon.pdf.)

110.4. (Coughlan, Lack of sleep blights pupils’ education (May 8, 2013) BBC News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22209818.)

110.5. (Mullis, Martin, Foy, & Drucker, PIRLS 2011 International Results in Reading (Dec. 2012) TIMSS & PIRLS Internat. Study Center, Boston College, http://timss.bc.edu/pirls2011/downloads/P11_IR_FullBook.pdf.)

111. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra, pp. 14-16, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=14; see also, Nilsson, Söderström, Karlsson, Lekander, Åkerstedt, Lindroth, & Axellson, Less effective executive functioning after one night’s sleep deprivation (2005) 14 J. Sleep Research, 1-6, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/nilsson-et-al-less-effective-executive-functioning-after-one-nights-sleep-deprivation.pdf.)

112. (Ng, Ng, & Chan, Sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance in Hong Kong Secondary School Children (Nov. 2009) 13 Sleep Breath 4, 357-367, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-duration-wakesleep-symptoms-and-academic-performance-in-hong-kong-secondary-school-children.pdf.)

113. (Kopasz, Loessl, Hornyak, Riemann, Nissen, Piosczyk, & Voderholzer, Sleep and memory in healthy children and adolescents – a critical review (Jun. 2010) 14 Sleep Medicine Rev. 3, 167-177, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-and-memory-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents-a-critical-review.pdf; Sleep, Learning, and Memory (Dec. 2007) Harvard Medical School, Div. Sleep Med., http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/benefits-of-sleep/learning-memory.)

114. (Wilhelm, Diekelmann, & Born, Sleep in children improves memory performance on declarative but not procedural tasks (2008) 15 Learning & Memory, pp. 373-377, http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/15/5/373.full; see also, Gais, Lucas, & Born, Sleep after learning aids memory recall (2006) 13 Learning & Memory, pp. 259-262, http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/13/3/259.full.)

115. (Curcio, Ferrara, & De Gennaro, Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance (Oct. 2006) 10 Sleep Medicine Rev. 5, 323-337, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-loss-learning-capacity-and-academic-performance1.pdf.)

116. (Taras, Potts-Datema, Sleep and student performance at school (Sept. 2005) 75 J. School Health 7, 248-254, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-and-student-performance-at-school.pdf)

117. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, pp. 63-76, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=63.)

117.5 (Potkin & Bunney, Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence (Aug. 7, 2012) Plos One, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0042191.)

118. (Fuligini & Hardway, Daily Variation in Adolescents’ Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being (2005) 16 J. Research on Adolescence 3, 353-378, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/fuligini_hardway-adolescent-sleep.pdf; see also, Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, pp. 36, 187-190, 192, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=187; Alfano, Zakem, Costa, Taylor, & Weems, Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents (Dec. 2008) 26 Depression & Anxiety 6, 503-512, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/sleep-problems-and-their-relation-to-cognitive-factors-anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents.pdf.)

119. (Chorney, Detweiler, Morris, & Kuhn, The Interplay of Sleep Disturbance, Anxiety, and Depression in Children (May 2008) 33 J. Pediatric Psychology 4, 339-348, http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/339.full.)

120. (Liu, Sleep and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior (2004) 27 Sleep 7, 1351-1358, http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/270711.pdf.) “The finding that adolescents who present with complaints of frequent nightmares and sleeping less than 8 hours a night were at higher risk for suicidal behavior highlights the crucial role of sleep in adolescent suicidal behavior.” (Id., p. 1356.)

121. (Gangwisch, Babiss, Malaspina, Turner, Zammit, & Posner, Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation (Jan. 1, 2010) 33 Sleep 1, 97-106, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802254/?tool=pubmed.) “Adolescence is associated with a circadian phase delay with an increasing preference to sleep at later hours; despite this, in most U.S. school districts school days begin progressively earlier as students transition from elementary to middle school and then from middle school to high school.” (Id., p. 97; see also, Late-night teens ‘face greater depression risk’ (Jan. 2, 2010) BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8435955.stm.)

122. (Hale, Bedtimes and the Blues: Evidence in Support of Improving Adolescent Sleep (Jan. 1, 2010) 33 Sleep 1, 17-18, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802243/; Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, pp. 190-191, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=190.)

123. (Goldstein, Bridge, & Brent, Sleep disturbance preceding completed suicide in adolescents (Feb. 2008) 76 J. Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1, 84-91, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823295/; see also, Hutchison, Dimensions of Human Behavior: The changing life course (Sage Publications, 3rd ed. 2008) p. 236.)

124. (Liu & Buysse, Sleep and youth suicidal behavior: a neglected field (May 2006) 19 Current Opn. Psychiatr. 3, 288-293, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-and-youth-suicidal-behavior-a-neglected-field.pdf.)

125. (Walker & Stickgold, It’s Practice, with Sleep, that Makes Perfect: Implications of Sleep-Dependent Learning and Plasticity for Skill Performance (2005) 24 Clinical Sports Med., 301-317, http://walkerlab.berkeley.edu/reprints/Walker_ClinSportsMed_05.pdf.)

126. (Lack Of Sleep Can Affect Athletic Performance In Teens (May 11, 2005) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050511072041.htm.)

127. (Beebe, Lewin, Zeller, McCabe, MacLeod, Daniels, & Amin, Sleep in Overweight Adolescents: Shorter Sleep, Poorer Sleep Quality, Sleepiness, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing (Feb. 8, 2006) 32 J. Pediatric Psychology 1, 69-79, http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/69.full) Compensating for the weekday sleep debt with additional sleep on weekends and holidays may partly ameliorate the problem of childhood obesity/weight gain. (Wing, Li, Li, Zhang, & Kong, The Effect of Weekend and Holiday Sleep Compensation on Childhood Overweight and Obesity (Nov. 2009) 124 Pediatrics 5, e994-e1000, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/124/5/e994.)

128. (Liu, Forbes, Ryan, Rofey, Hannon, & Dahl, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Relation to Overweight in Children and Adolescents (2008) 65 Archives of General Psychiatry 8, 924-932, http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/65/8/924; see also, Expert Sources & Comm., Sleep – High Quality and Enough of It – Is Essential for Child Health (Jun. 10, 2010) Brown Univ., http://news.brown.edu/pressreleases/2010/06/sleep.)

129. (Less is More: Study Shows that Teens Who Sleep Less Eat More Fatty Foods and Snacks (Aug. 23, 2010) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1857; see also, Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 35, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=35.)

130. (Less sleep may add up to more pounds in adolescents (May 5, 2010) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100504074837.htm; Staff, Teens Who Sleep Less Gain More Weight, Study Finds (May 4, 2010) Science 2.0, http://www.science20.com/news_articles/teens_who_sleep_less_gain_more_weight_study_finds; Fulton, Some Teens Who Sleep Less Gain More Weight (May 4, 2010) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2010/05/some_teens_who_sleep_less_gain.html; see also, Vgontzas, Mastorakos, Bixler, Kales, Gold, & Chrousos, Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications (Aug. 1999) 51 Clinical Endocrinology (Oxf.) 2, 205-215, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-deprivation-effects-on-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-and-growth-axes-potential-clinical-implications.pdf; Calhoun, Vgontzas, Fernandez-Mendoza, Mayes, Tsaoussoglou, Basta, & Bixler, Prevalence and Risk Factors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a Community Sample of Young Children: The Role of Obesity, Asthma, Anxiety/Depression, and Sleep (May 2011) 34 Sleep 4, http://www.journalsleep.org/viewabstract.aspx?pid=28093, discussed here, Sleepiness in children linked to obesity, asthma (May 18, 2011) Penn. State Hershey College Med., http://med.psu.edu/web/mdphd/home/news/-/newsevents/News/10100/2854616.)

131. (O’Brien & Mindell, Sleep and Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents (2005) 3 Behavioral Sleep Med. 3, 113-133, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/obrien-and-mindell-sleep-and-risk-taking-behavior-in-adolescents.pdf.) “Risk-taking refers to those behaviors that increase the risk of morbidity and/or mortality.” (Id., p. 115, citation omitted.)

132. (Mednick, Christakis, & Fowler, The Spread of Sleep Loss Influences Drug Use in Adolescent Social Networks (Mar. 2010) 5 Plos One 3, e9775, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0009775; see also, Pasch, Latimer, Cance, Moe, & Lytle, Longitudinal Bi-directional Relationships Between Sleep and Youth Substance Use (Sept. 2012) 41 J. Youth & Adolescence 9, pp. 1184–1196, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3431186/ [author’s manuscript].)

133. (Clinkinbeard, Simi, Evans, & Anderson, Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter? (Jul. 2011) J. Youth & Adolescence, http://www.unomaha.edu/enotes/2010/img/sleep.pdf, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/clinkinbeard-et-al-sleep-and-delinquency-does-the-amount-of-sleep-matter.pdf; McKay-Corkum, The implications of teen sleep deficits (Jul. 19, 2011) Daily Hampshire Gazette.)

134. (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Ancoli-Israel, & Redline (Jun. 2009) Relationships Among Sleepiness, Sleep Time, and Psychological Functioning in Adolescents, J. Pediatric Psychology, 1-9, http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/34/10/1175; see also, Bailly, Bailly-Lambin, Querleu, Beuscart, & Collinet, Sleep in adolescents and its disorders. A survey in schools (Jul./Aug. 2004) 30 Encephale 4, 352-359, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15538310.)

135. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, pp. 25-26, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=25.)

136. (Glozier, Martiniuk, Patton, Ivers, Li, Hickie, Senserrick, Woodward, Norton, & Stevenson, Short Sleep Duration in Prevalent and Persistent Psychological Distress in Young Adults: The DRIVE Study (2010) 33 Sleep 9, 1139-1145, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=27892, discussed in n. 143.) “Modifying, or ameliorating the impact of, modern lifestyles that promote sleep deprivation in young people, such as starting school later and restricting late night internet access and other bedtime prolonging activities is a challenging task.” (N. 136, p. 1144; see also, Augner, Associations of subjective sleep quality with depression score, anxiety, physical symptoms and sleep onset latency in students (2011) 19 Central European J. Public Health 2, pp. 115-117, http://www.szu.cz/svi/cejph/archiv/2011-2-10-full.pdf.)

137. (Javaheri, Storfer-Isser, Rosen, & Redline, Sleep Quality and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescents (Aug. 2008) 118 Circulation, J. Am. Heart Assn., 1034-1040, http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/118/10/1034.pdf.)

138. (Matthews, Dahl, Owens, Lee, & Hall, Sleep Duration and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Black and White Adolescents (2012) 35 Sleep 10, pp. 1353-1358, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28654; see also, Cappuccio, Lanfranco, Strazzullo, & Miller,Sleep Duration and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies (May 1, 2010) 33 Sleep 5, pp. 585–592, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864873/.)

139. (Lack of Sleep Leads to Insulin Resistance in Teens (Sept. 29, 2012) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120929140234.htm.)

140. (Narang, Manlhiot, Davies-Shaw, Gibson, Chahal, Stearne, Fisher, Dobbin, & McCrindle, Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents (Oct. 1, 2012) Canadian Medical Assn. J. http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/narang-et-al-sleep-disturbance-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescents.pdf, http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2012/10/01/cmaj.111589; see, Möller-Levet, Archer, Bucca, Laing, Slak, Kabiljo, Lo, Santhi, Schantz, Smith, & Dijk, Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome (Feb. 25, 2013) Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/mc3b6ller-levet-et-al-effects-of-insufficient-sleep-on-circadian-rhythmicity-and-expression-amplitude.pdfhttp://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/02/20/1217154110.abstract.)

142. (Bronson, Snooze or Lose (Oct. 7, 2007) N.Y. Mag., web p. 2, http://nymag.com/news/features/38951/index1.html; see also, Martin, Late to Bed, Early to Rise Makes a Teen-Ager … Tired (Aug. 1, 1999) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/08/01/education/late-to-bed-early-to-rise-makes-a-teen-ager-tired.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.)

143. (Study Links Shorter Sleep Durations with Greater Risks of Mental Distress in Young Adults (Aug. 30, 2010) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1867&cid=47.)

144. (Schutte-Rodin, Teens and School Start Times (Dec. 2009) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://yoursleep.aasmnet.org/topic.aspx?id=42.)

145. (Ming, Koransky, Kang, Buchman, Sarris, & WagnerSleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students (Oct. 20, 2011) 2011 Clinical Med. Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory & Pulmonary Med. 5, pp. 71-79, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/f_2879-ccrpm-sleep-insufficiency-sleep-health-problems-and-performance-in-high-sch_3860.pdf.)

146. (Asarnow, McGlinchey, & Harvey, in press, The Effects of Bedtime and Sleep Duration on Academic and Emotional Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents (2013) J. Adolescent Health, pp. 1-7, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/asarnow-et-al-the-effects-of-bedtime-and-sleep-duration-on-academic-achievement-and-emotional-outcomes.pdf.)

147. (Samson, Blunden, & Banks, The Characteristics of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Adolescence: A Review (2013) 4 Internat. Rev. Social Sciences & Humanities 2, pp. 90-107, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/samson-et-al-the-characteristics-of-sleep-and-sleep-loss-in-adolescence-a-review.pdf.)

148. (AASM Weekly Update, AMA Resolution Acknowledges the Problem of Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents (Jun. 25, 2010) Am. Academy of Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1778, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2919676/, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2919676/#top.)

II.   The Basics of Adolescent Sleep Biology

179. (Diconsiglio, let me sleep! (Feb. 11, 2002) 134 N.Y. Times Upfront 9, pp. 14-17, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/diconsiglio-let-me-sleep.pdf [an error in Mr. Diconsiglio’s article is discussed in n. 578, infra].) Florida State College Professor of Psychology Erin Richman, a specialist in adolescent developmental psychology, says that for most adolescents, starting school at 7 a.m. is “like asking adults to start work every morning at 3:00 a.m.” (Ross, Does High School Start Too Early? More Researchers Say Yes, Call For Change (Jul. 23, 2013) wjct News, http://news.wjct.org/post/does-high-school-start-too-early-more-researchers-say-yes-call-change.)

180. (Feyer, Fatigue: time to recognise and deal with an old problem (Apr. 7, 2001) 322 British Med. J. 7290, 808–809, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1119993/.) “Lack of sleep needs to stop being regarded as a badge of honour and seen for the serious hazard that it actually is.” (Id., p. 809.)

181. (Miller, Shattuck, Matsangas, & Dyche, Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs (2008) 2 Mind, Brain, & Education 1, 29-33, http://faculty.nps.edu/nlmiller/docs/Sleep_and_academic_performance.pdf.)

182. (Miller, Shattuck, & Matsangas, Sleep Patterns in Military Personnel: Longitudinal Study of Sleep Patterns of United States Military Academy Cadets (2010) 33 Sleep 12, 1623-1631, http://faculty.nps.edu/nlmiller/docs/SLEEP_Article_2010.pdf.)

183. (Hosek, Kavanaugh, & Miller, How Deployments Affect Service Members (Rand Corp. 2006), http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG432.pdf.)

184. (Fernandez, Politician Hopes to Reawaken Sleep Legislation (Mar. 25, 1999) SFGate.com, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1999/03/25/MN81895.DTL.)

185. (Commuting in the United States: 2009, American Community Survey Rep. (Sept. 2011) Commerce Dept., Census Bureau, pp. 1-19, http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acs-15.pdf; see also, American Community Survey (2010) Commerce Dept., Bureau of Census, http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/2010_release/; American Community Survey (2009) Commerce Dept., Bureau of Census, http://www.census.gov/acs/www/data_documentation/2009_release/.)

186. (Grace, Help for Sleep-Deprived Students (Apr. 19, 2004) CBS News, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/19/health/main612476.shtml.)

186.5. (Comments Section, Price, School District Proposes Earlier Start Times to Address Traffic Safety Concerns (Apr. 6, 2012) Wauwatosa Patch, http://wauwatosa.patch.com/groups/schools/p/school-district-proposes-earlier-start-times-to-addre565d4cf502#comments_list.)

187. (Pan, Schernhammer, Sun, & Hu, Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women (Dec. 6, 2011) 8 Plos Med. 12, e1001141, http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001141?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+plosmedicine%2FNewArticles+(Ambra+-+Medicine+New+Articles; Vyas, Garg, Iansavichus, Costella, Donner, Laugsand, Janszky, Mrkobrada, Parraga, Hackam, Shift work and vascular events: systematic review and meta-analysis (Jul. 26, 2012) 345 BMJ e4800, http://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e4800#aff-6.)

188. (Most Night Shift Workers Don’t Adapt To The Hours (Apr. 23, 2011) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/2011/04/21/135594251/sleep-deprivation-study; see, Åkerstedt & Wright, Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder (Jun. 1, 2009) 4 Sleep Med. Clinics 2, pp. 257–271, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904525/#__ffn_sectitle.)

189. (Phillips, Circadian rhythms: Of owls, larks and alarm clocks (2009) Nature 458, pp. 142-144, http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090311/full/458142a.html#B3.)

189.5. (Thomas, Circadian Rhythms and Shift Work (Aug. 2003) American College of Emergency Physicians, Wellness Sec., http://www.acep.org/content.aspx?id=30560.)

190. (Hedström, Åkerstedt, Hillert, Olsson, Alfredsson, Shift Work at Young Age is Associated with Increased Risk for Multiple Sclerosis (2011) 70 Annals of Neurology, pp. 733-741, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/hedstrom-et-al-shift-work-at-young-age-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-ms.pdf.)

191. (Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Biological Rhythms – Teacher’s Guide, Nat. Inst. Health, http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/sleep/guide/info-sleep.htm.)

192. (Nat. Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep, Nat. Inst. Health, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm; Virginia Academy Sleep Med. (Jan. 2011) Sleep is Important to Your Child’s Health, http://www.vasleepmedicine.org/pdf/SLEEP_IS_IMPORTANT_TO_YOUR_CHILD.pdf.)

193. (Crowley, Acebo, & Carskadon, Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence (2007) 8 Sleep Med., 602-612, http://www.sleepforscience.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/6033aedfc83ddcdaeb659ca3a6b64849/pdf/crowley_et_al_sleep_med_2007.pdf.) Studies have confirmed that more mature and older adolescents prefer later timing of activities than younger, less mature adolescents. (Ibid.)

194. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, pp. 23-45, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=23.)

A.   Sleep Needs/Sleep Loss as a Stressor

219. (Turcios, Sleep is as vital to well-being as air, food, and water (Oct. 25, 2011) myCentralJersey.com, http://www.mspaintart.com/teenagers-need-sleep/ [alternate link], http://www.mycentraljersey.com/article/20111025/NJNEWS/310250019/Why-teenagers-need-sleep-it-s-good-for-you [archived original article].)

220. (Dahl, The Consequences of Insufficient Sleep for Adolescents: Links Between Sleep and Emotional Regulation (Jan. 1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, 354-359, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/dahl-the-consequences-of-insufficient-sleep-for-adolescents.pdf; see also, Gau, Prevalence of sleep problems and their association with inattention/hyperactivity among children aged 6–15 in Taiwan (2006) 15 J. Sleep Research, pp., 403–414, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/gau-prevalence-of-sleep-problems-and-their-association-with-inattention-hyperactivity.pdf.)

221. (Brand & Kirov, Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions (Jun. 2011) 4 Internat. J. General Med., pp. 425-442, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3119585/.)

222. (Drowsy Driving and Automobile Crashes, Nat. Center on Sleep Disorders Research/Nat. Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)/NHTSA Expert Panel on Driver Fatigue and Sleepiness, http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/drowsy_driving1/drowsy.html.)

223. (Matricciani, Olds, Blunden, Rigney, & Williams, Never Enough Sleep: A Brief History of Sleep Recommendations for Children(Feb. 13, 2012) 129 Pediatrics 3, pp. 548-556, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/never-enough-sleep.pdf.)

224. (Replies to Never Enough Sleep: A Brief History of Sleep Recommendations for Children, Pediatrics (Feb. 2012) [various authors], http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/3/548/reply; see also, Carskadon &Owens, Sleep Guidance for Kids and Teens Is Based on Sound Science (Mar. 16, 2012) Huffpost Healthy Living, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-a-carskadon-phd/kids-sleep_b_1348872.html; Shute, How Much Sleep Do Kids Need? Not Such A Mystery After All (Feb. 14, 2012) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/02/14/146881838/how-much-sleep-do-kids-need-not-such-a-mystery-after-all?ps=sh_stcatimg.)

225. (Mercer, Merritt, & Cowell, Differences in Reported Sleep Need Among Adolescents (1998) 23 J. Adolescent Health, pp. 259–263, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/mercer-et-al.pdf.)

225.5. (Moran & Everhart, Adolescent Sleep: Review of Characteristics, Consequences, and Intervention (2012) 1 J. Sleep Disorders: Treatment & Care 2, http://www.scitechnol.com/2325-9639/2325-9639-1-104.php.)

225.7. (How Much Sleep Do I Need? (Jul. 1, 2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/how_much_sleep.htm.)

226. (Rettner, Lack of Sleep in Teen Boys Linked to Obesity (May 4, 2010) LiveScience, http://www.livescience.com/6425-lack-sleep-teen-boys-linked-obesity.html.)

227. (Chrousos, Stress and disorders of the stress system (Jul. 2009) 5 Nature Rev. Endocrinology, p. 377, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/chrousos-stress-and-disorders-of-the-stress-system.pdf.)

228. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 24, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=24.)

229. (Maume, Social Ties and Adolescent Sleep Disruption (2013) 54 J. Health & Social Behavior, pp. 498-515, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/maume-social-ties-and-adolescent-sleep-disruption.pdf, http://www.asanet.org/journals/JHSB/DEC13JHSBFeature.pdf; see also, Fowler, UC Research Finds Social Ties Are More Important Than Biology When it Comes to Teen Sleep Problems (Dec. 5, 2013) Univ. Cinncinnati News, http://www.uc.edu/news/NR.aspx?id=18925; Neighmond, Teens Who Feel Supported At Home And School Sleep Better (Dec. 6, 2013) Capital Pub. Radio, http://www.capradio.org/news/npr/story?storyid=248885401 [includes audio].)

230. (Children Living in Poverty (2013) Nat. Center for Ed. Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/coe_cce.pdf, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cce.asp#r1.)

B.   Adolescent Circadian Timing   

248. (Webpage of Russell Foster, Ph.D., F.R.S., Head of Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Chair of Circadian Neuroscience, Oxford University, as of Aug. 12, 2011, http://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/team/researchers/russell-foster; see also, Science Weekly Podcast, The science of sleep and circadian rhythms (Jul. 21, 2011) [interview with Professor Foster], http://www.theguardian.com/science/audio/2011/jul/25/science-weekly-podcast-sleep-fosterFosterBring back the night – your health and wellbeing depend on it (Jul. 13, 2011) Guardian UK, http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/jul/13/neuroscience-biology; see, Barker, We Used To Sleep In Two Segments Every Night Until Electricity Was Invented (Aug. 14, 2012) Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/were-we-meant-to-sleep-in-two-chunks-2012-8; Hegarty, The myth of the eight-hour sleep (Feb. 22, 2012) BBC, News Mag. [discussing bi-modal or segmented sleep], http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16964783; Ekirch, At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past (W. W. Norton & Company 2005), http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/At_Day_s_Close.html?id=mIaB7l0TYoAC; Wehr, In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic (1992) 1 J. Sleep Research 2, pp. 103-107, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10607034 [abstract].)

249. (Carel & Léger, Precocious Puberty (2008) 358 N. England J. Medicine 22, p. 2366, http://www.scribd.com/gabbs328/d/47995583-Precocious-puberty-NEJMhttp://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/puberte-precoce-nejmag-carel-2008.pdf.)

250. (Rogol, Clark, & Roemmich, Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity (Aug. 2000) 72 Am. J. Clinical Nutrition 2, p. 523S, http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/72/2/521s.full.)

250.3. (Roenneberg, Kuehnle, Pramstaller, Ricken, Havel, Guth, & Merrow, A marker for the end of adolescence (2004) 14 Current Biology 24, pp. 38–39, http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0960982204009285/1-s2.0-S0960982204009285-main.pdf?_tid=a8fd7dea-950d-11e3-99f9-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1392337345_191f899d4fff37f5f6bb4b56a6613286.) Phase delay begins one year earlier in girls than in boys. Adolescence also concludes earlier in girls (19.5 years) than in boys (20.9 years). (Ibid.; see also, n. 103, p. 276; Carskadon, Acebo, & Jenni, Regulation of Adolescent Sleep: Implications for Behavior (Jun. 2004) 1021 Annals of N.Y. Academy of Sciences, pp. 276-291, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/carskadon-et-al-regulation-of-adolescent-sleep-implications-for-behavior.pdf.)

250.4. (Foster, Why teenagers really do need an extra hour in bed (Apr. 22, 2013) New Scientist, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829130.100-why-teenagers-really-do-need-an-extra-hour-in-bed.htmlFoster, The Science of Sleepy Teenagers (Apr. 27, 2013) Slate, http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/new_scientist/2013/04/teenage_sleep_patterns_why_school_should_start_later.single.html.)

Circadian Rhythms & Homeostasis

250.5. (Sadeh, Dahl, Shahar, & Rosenblat-Stein, Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study (2009) 32 Sleep 12, pp. 1602-1609, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=27643; Press Release, Sleep changes predict the onset of physical changes associated with puberty (Dec. 1, 2009) Am. Academy of Sleep Med., http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-12/aaos-scp112309.php.)

251. (BBC News, Study finds that teenagers are not getting enough sleep (Apr. 18, 2012) Health News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-17753012; id., Clock change could leave teenagers more sleepy (Apr. 18, 2012) Health News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-17755357.)

252. (Emsellem & Whiteley, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, supra, p. 12, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=12.)

253. (Chung & Cheung, Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents (2008) 31 Sleep 2, http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/310204.pdf.)

254. (Yang, Kim, Patel, & Lee, Age-Related Changes in Sleep/Wake Patterns Among Korean Teenagers (Jan. 2005) 115 Pediatrics 1, 250-256, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/yang-et-al-age-related-changes-in-sleep-wake-patterns-among-korean-teenagers.pdf.)

255. (Rhie, Lee, & Chae, Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (2011) 54 Korean J. Pediatrics 1, 29-35, http://synapse.koreamed.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0052KJP/kjp-54-29.pdf.)

256. (Gupta, Bhatia, Chhabra, Sharma, Dahiya, Semalti, Sapra, & Dua, Sleep Patterns of Urban School-going Adolescents (Mar. 17, 2008) 45 Indian Pediatrics, 183-189, http://www.indianpediatrics.net/mar2008/183.pdf.)

257. (Hoecker, Adolescent Sleep Deprivation (Mar. 17, 2008) 45 Indian Pediatrics, 181-182,  http://medind.nic.in/ibv/t08/i3/ibvt08i3p181.pdf.)

258. (Reid, Maldonado, & Baker, Sleep Behavior of South African Adolescents (Jun. 15, 2002) 25 Sleep 4, 423-427, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-behavior-of-south-african-adolescents.pdfhttp://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=25735; see also, Loessl, Valerius, Kopasz, Hornyak, Riemann, & Voderholzer, Are adolescents chronically sleep-deprived? An investigation of sleep habits of adolescents in the Southwest of Germany (Sept. 2008) 34 Child: care, health and development 5, pp. 549-556, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/loessl-et-al-are-adolescents-chronically-sleep-deprived-an-investigation-of-sleep-habits-of-adolescents-in-the-southwest-of-germany.pdf.)

259. (Ghanizadeh, Kianpoor, Rezaei, Rezaei, Moini, Aghakhani, Ahmadi, & Moeini, Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran (Mar. 2008) 7 Annals General Psychiatry 5, http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC2292723/reload=0;jsessionid=03AA47986E7672420DFA4922F713911A.jvm1http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/7/1/5.)

260. (FIGHTING THE CLOCK: How America’s Sleep Deficit is Damaging Longterm Health (Mar. 6, 2012) Briefing, Harvard School of Public Health, http://theforum.sph.harvard.edu/events/fighting-the-clock/.)

261. (Preckel, Lipnevich, Boehme, Brandner, Georgi, Könen, Mursin, & Roberts, Morningness-eveningness and educational outcomes: the lark has an advantage over the owl at high school (2011) British J. Educational Psychology, pp. 1-21, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/morningness-eveningness-and-educational-outcomes-the-lark-has-an-advantage-over-the-owl-at-high-school.pdf; see also, Díaz-Morales & Escribano, Predicting school achievement: The role of inductive reasoning, sleep length and morningness–eveningness (2013) Personality and Individual Differences, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/diaz-morales-et-al-predicting-school-achievement.pdf; Díaz-Morales & Gutiérrez Sorroche, Morningness-Eveningness in Adolescents (2008) 11 Spanish J. Psychology 1, pp. 201-206, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/diaz-morales-et-al-morningness-eveningness-in-adolescents.pdf.)

262. (SamuelsSleep, Recovery, and Performance: The New Frontier in High-Performance Athletics (2008) Neurologic Clinics 26, pp. 169-180, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/samuels-sleep-recovery-and-performance.pdf.)

263. (Roenneberg, Wirz-Justice, & Merrow, Life between Clocks: Daily Temporal Patterns of Human Chronotypes (Feb. 2003) 18 J. Biological Rhythms 1, pp. 80-90, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/roenneberg-life-between-clocks-daily-temporal-patterns-of-human-chronotypes.pdf.) This study, based upon 500 completed questionnaires distributed in Germany and Switzerland in high schools, universities, and among the general population, found “owls” to be in the majority. “Proverbs praising early chronotypes are abundant, but the results shown here indicate that worm catchers are rare birds in modern society. Paradoxically, most work schedules are still tailored for this lark minority….” (Id., p. 89; Merrow, Teenagers victims of their biological clock (Oct. 14, 2008) Univ. Groningen, http://www.rug.nl/news/2008/10/opinie34_08?lang=en.)

264. (Manfredini, Manfredini, Fersini, & Conconi, Circadian rhythms, athletic performance, and jet lag (1998) 32 British J. Sports Medicine, pp. 101-106, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/manfredini-circadian-rhythms-athletic-performance-and-jet-lag.pdf.)

265. (Wolfson, Adolescents and Emerging Adults’ Sleep Patterns: New Developments (Feb. 2010) 46 J. Adolescent Health 2, 97-99, http://www.jahonline.org/article/PIIS1054139X0900634X/fulltext.)

266. (Duffy, Cain, Chang, Phillips, Münch, Gronfier, Wyatt, Dijk, Wright, & Czeisler, Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system (2011) 108 Proceeding of the National Association of Sciences of the USA S3, pp. 15602–15608, http://www.pnas.org/content/108/Supplement_3/15602.long.).

Light/Technology Exposure

278. (Crepeau, Bullough, Figueiro, Porter, & Rea, Lighting as a circadian rhythm-entraining and alertness enhancing stimulus in the submarine environment, Presented at the 2006 Undersea Human Systems Integration Symposium, Mystic, Connecticut, June 6-8. Newport, Rhode Island, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/crepeau-et-al-lighting-as-a-circadian-rhythm-entraining-and-alertness-enhancing-stimulus-in-the-submarine-environment.pdf, http://cogprints.org/6574/1/059-uhsis06.pdf.)

279. (Sack, Brandes, Kendall, & Lewy, Entrainment of Free-Running Circadian Rhythms by Melatonin in Blind People (Oct. 12, 2000) 343 N. England J. Medicine 15, pp. 1070-1077, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sack-entrainment-of-free-running-circadian-rhythms-by-melatonin-in-blind-people.pdf.)

280. (Boivin, Duffy, Kronauer, & Czeisler, Dose-response relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light (Feb. 8, 1996) 379 Nature, 540-546, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dose-response-relationships-for-resetting-of-human-circadian-clock-by-light.pdf.)

281. (Figueiro & Rea, Lack of short-wavelength light during the school day delays dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in middle school students (2010) 31 NeuroEndocrinology Letters 1, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/figueiro-and-rea.pdf; see also, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Quantifying Impact of Lighting on K-12 Students’ Performance and Well-Being, http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pdf/2009/quantifyingUSGBC8511.pdf; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Lighting Research Center, Daylighting,  http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/researchAreas/daylighting.asp.) Figueiro and Professor of Architecture and Cognitive Sciences Mark Rea postulate that “those who do not get enough short-wavelength light during the school day will exhibit reduced scholastic performance.” (N. 281, p. 95.) Recent studies appear split concerning whether controlled exposure to sunlight may improve academic performance. (Cf. Tolppanen, Sayers, Fraser, & Lawlor, Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 with academic performance in childhood: findings from a prospective birth cohort (Apr. 9, 2012) J. Epidemiology & Community Health, http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2012/03/22/jech-2011-200114.full., with n. 283.)

282. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Lack of Morning Light Keeping Teenagers Up at Night (Feb. 16, 2010) Physorg.com, http://www.physorg.com/pdf185548024.pdf, http://news.rpi.edu/update.do?artcenterkey=2686, http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-02/rpi-lom021610.php.)

283. (Heschong Mahone Group, Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance (Aug. 20, 1999) California Board for Energy Efficiency, http://h-m-g.com/downloads/Daylighting/schoolc.pdf [positively associating increased daylighting from large windows/skylights with improved academic performance among elementary school students in three school districts]; see also, Heschong Mahone Group, Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment (Oct. 2003) Cal. Energy Comm., http://h-m-g.com/downloads/Daylighting/A-7_Windows_Classrooms_2.4.10.pdf; Sprinkle, 5 Surprisingly Easy Ways to Make Kids Smarter (Jun. 18, 2011) Cracked.com, http://www.cracked.com/article_19254_5-surprisingly-easy-ways-to-make-kids-smarter.html.)

284. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Lighting Research Center, Researchers Investigate Daylight and Electric Light on K-12 Students’ Well-being and Performance, http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/lightHealth/projects/K12light.asp; see also, Buhr, Yoo, & Takahashi, Temperature as a Universal Resetting Cue for Mammalian Circadian Oscillators (Oct. 15, 2010) 330 Science 6002, 379-385, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/330/6002/379.short; Temperature Rhythms Keep Body Clocks in Sync (Oct. 15, 2010) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101014144314.htm.)

285. (Figueiro & Rea, Short-Wavelength Light Enhances Cortisol Awakening Response in Sleep-Restricted Adolescents (2012) Internat. J. of Endocrinology, http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2012/301935/.)

III. The Intersection of School Start Time “Policies” & Adolescent Sleep, Health, & Potential

289. (Fox & Edwards, Let Them Sleep In: Docs Want Later School Times for Teens (Aug. 25, 2014) NBC News, http://www.nbcnews.com/health/kids-health/let-them-sleep-docs-want-later-school-times-teens-n186976.)

290. (Colrain & Baker, Changes in Sleep as a Function of Adolescent Development (2011) 21 Neuropsychology Rev., pp. 5-21, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/colrain-and-baker-changes-in-sleep-as-a-function-of-adolescent-development.pdf.)

Circadian Phase Delay vs. U.S. Start Time Policies  

291. (School and Staffing Survey, Public School Start Time 2007-2008, Nat. Center for Education Statistics, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/nces-start-time-data-2007-08.xlsx.) For the years 2007-2008, the National Center for Education Statistics reports the following start time data for public high schools in the United States: before 7:30 a.m., 8.8%; between 7:30 a.m. and 7:59 a.m., 31.5%; between 8 a.m. and 8:29 a.m., 44.5%; between 8:30 a.m. and 8:59 a.m., 11.1%;9 a.m. or later, 4.1%. (Id.; see also, School and Staffing Survey, Average No. School Hours & School Days, 2007-2008, Nat. Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/tables/sass0708_035_s1s.asp.)

292. (Zuckerman, Early Morning Classes, Sleepy Students, and Risky Behaviors (Jul. 2010) Nat. Research Center for Women & Families, http://center4research.org/child-teen-health/early-morning-classes-sleepy-students-and-risky-behaviors/.)

293. (Wahlstrom, School Start Times and Sleepy Teens (Jul. 2010) 164 Archives Pediatric & Adolescent Med. 7, 676-677, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/editorial-school-start-time-and-sleepy-teens-archives-of-pediatrics-adolescent-medicine-july-2010.pdf.) “Thus, pairing the growing body of medical research with the educational outcomes seems to be the logical path to argue for changing to later start times. The difficulty then and now is the tendency of those opposed to making changes to not use the known facts as a starting point for the local discussion. When districts begin the conversation by asking, ‘Do you think we should change the start time of our high school?’ given what we already know about natural resistance to change, the discussion will almost certainly begin on a negative footing and will likely polarize the community. A better approach would be to begin by sharing what we currently know to be true about the biological imperatives of adolescent development and sleep, along with the social/emotional and educational outcomes for more- and less well-rested teenagers. Incorrect assumptions, the use of only partial facts, and hasty implementation are frequent reasons that cause the defeat or demise of a local decision to change the start time. Transportation costs are the other main stumbling block to such a change. They can be a truly legitimate reason for no change if a transportation study is impartially conducted, assessing the logistics and financial impact. Interestingly, both the Edina and Minneapolis school districts were able to implement the change to a later high school start time with zero impact on their transportation budgets, so it can be accomplished at no additional cost.
“In the end, having comprehensive information and impartial presentation of what is known, and not assumed, is needed to really begin the local dialogue. Given what has been discovered thus far, changing the starting time of schools is a seemingly simple issue with incredibly sticky political dimensions. A final caveat is to be mindful that one solution does not fit all. It is through the development of shared knowledge of the facts and the concerns that a reasonable, local decision is reached. And the decision may ultimately be that a change is not feasible. So be it. The community at large is, after all, the final arbiter, as all must truly live with the consequences. Our teenagers need and deserve our best informed thinking about all of this; having the facts in hand is the best place to start.” (Id., p. 677.)

294. (Start Times Task Force (2007) Fairfax Public Schools, http://www.fcps.edu/fts/taskforce07/documents/largesuburbansystems.pdf.)

295. (Policy Brief, Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments (Aug. 2011) Brookings Inst., Hamilton Project, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2011/9/organization-jacob-rockoff/092011_organize_jacob_rockoff_brief.pdf, or, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/jacob-and-rockoff-policy-brief.pdf.)

296. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 211, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=211.)

297. (Zimmerman, Class time, not nap time (Nov. 28, 2012) philly.com, http://www.philly.com/philly/opinion/20121128_Class_time__not_nap_time.html.)

298. (Moore & Meltzer, The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens (2008) 9 Paediatric Respiratory Rev., p. 116, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/the-sleepy-adolescent-causes-and-consequences.pdf.)

299. (Fischel, Neither “Creatures of the State” nor “Accidents of Geography”: The Creation of American Public School Districts in the Twentieth Century (Wint. 2010) 77 Univ. Chi. L. Rev. 177, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~wfischel/Papers/SSRN-Battersby22dec06.pdf.)

300. (Edit. Board, Fairfax revisits high school start times (Apr. 18, 2012) Wash. Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/fairfax-revisits-when-high-school-classes-should-start/2012/04/18/gIQArlRlRT_story.html.)

301. (Healthy school start times mean better performance, Start Later for Excellence in Education Proposal (SLEEP), www.sleepinfairfax.org/docs/SLEEP_Factsheet_02-10-2009.pdf.) Advocates for delaying start times in Fairfax, Virginia, say their efforts have been rebuffed for “at least 10 years.” (SLEEP, http://www.sleepinfairfax.org/index.htm; see, Chandler, Board Rejects Change of High School Bell Times (Mar. 20, 2009) Wash. Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/19/AR2009031903043.html.) A recent survey undertaken by county officials shows the majority of Fairfax County teens are sleep-deprived. (Fairfax County Youth Survey (2009) Fairfax County, VA, http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/demogrph/youthpdf.htm.) On April 12, 2012, a newly constituted board voted 10-2 on a measure to declare later high school start times (after 8 a.m.) as a goal. As noted in the main text, County buses pick up students as early as 5:45 a.m. for 7:20 a.m. classes. (N. 300.)

302. (Curtis, RSU 3 to drop to one bus run from two (Mar. 30, 2012) BDN Maine, http://bangordailynews.com/2012/03/30/education/rsu-3-to-drop-to-one-bus-run-from-two/?ref=latest.)

303. (Staples, RSU 3 board to vote on combining bus runs (Mar. 6, 2012) Morning Sentinel, http://www.onlinesentinel.com/news/rsu-3-board-to-vote-on-combining-bus-runs_2012-03-05.html.)

304. (Walsleben, Norman, Novak, O’Malley, Rapoport, & Strohl, Sleep Habits Of Long Island Rail Road Commuters (1999) 22 Sleep 6, pp. 728-734, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=24164, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/walsleben-et-al-sleep-habits-of-long-island-rail-road-commuters.pdf.)

304.1 (Tse, Flin, & Mearns, Bus driver well being review: 50 years of research (2000) 9 Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2, pp. 89-114, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/tse-et-al-bus-driver-well-being-review-50-years-of-research.pdf.)

304.2. (Hyland, Driving ourselves to death? (Nov. 16, 2006) Penn. Current, http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/2006-11-16/research/driving-ourselves-death.)

304.3. (Basner, Fomberstein, Razavi, Banks, William, Rosa, & Dinges, American Time Use Survey: Sleep Time and Its Relationship to Waking Activities (2007) 30 Sleep 9, pp. 1085-1095, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=26930, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/basner-et-al-american-time-use-survey-sleeptime-and-its-relationship-to-waking-activities.pdf, http://www.atususers.umd.edu/papers/Dinges.pdf [draft copy].)

304.4. (Cantwell, Caulfield, & O’Mahony, Examining the Factors that Impact Public Transport Commuting Satisfaction (2009) 12 J. Pub. Transportation 2, pp. 1-21, http://www.nctr.usf.edu/jpt/pdf/JPT12-2Cantwell.pdf [article], http://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/JPT12-2.pdf [vol. 12, no. 2, in its entirety].) “Various studies have shown that commuting can cause considerable stress, whether by public transport or private car (Tse et al. 2000; Bhat and Sardesai 2006; Wener et al. 2005). This stress can spill over into commuters’ work and home life (Wener et al. 2005), as well as affect the overall quality of life of commuters (Costal et al. 1988). Elevated stress levels can contribute to serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease and suppressed immune functioning (Wener et al. 2005). [¶] Several studies have demonstrated that riding a bus or commuting by car or train elevates psycho-physiological parameters such as blood pressure and neuroendocrine processes, indicative of stress. These markers of psycho-physiological stress provide objective evidence that the commuting experience is stressful. Insufficient capacity and crowding is a major cause of stress among commuters who use public transport.” (Id., pp. 2, 3.)

304.5. (O’Regan & Buckley, The Psychological Effects of Commuting in Dublin (Nov. 2003) Centre for Research in Management Learning and Development Working Paper Series 2003, http://www4.dcu.ie/dcubs/crmld/working_papers/Psychology-of-Commuting1.pdf.)

304.6. (Mahudin, Transfer effects and permeable boundaries: An empirical study of the effects of commuting stress on employees’ work and life (2012) 1 Southeast Asia Psychology J., pp. 1-9, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/mahudin-transfer-effects-and-permeable-boundaries-an-empirical-study-of-the-effects-of-commuting-stress-on-employees-work-and-life.pdf; see also, Brody, Commuting’s Hidden Cost (Oct. 28, 2013) N.Y. Times, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/28/commutings-hidden-cost/?_php=true&_type=blogs&src=rechp&_r=1; Lyons & Chatterjee, A human perspective on the daily commute: Costs, benefits and trade-offs (2008) 28 Transport Reviews 2, pp. 181-198, http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/8251/2/Lyons_Chatterjee_Transport_Reviews_2008_Human_Perspective_Accepted_Version.pdf [manuscript]; Wener & Evans, The Impact of Mode and Mode Transfer on Commuter Stress, The Montclair Connection (Jun. 2004) N.J. Dept. of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration, http://www.utrc2.org/sites/default/files/pubs/Impact-of-Mode-%26-Mode-Transfer-on-Commuter-Stress-Montclair-Connection.pdf; Study: Commuting by Rail Means Less Stress Than Driving (Aug. 23, 2006) Am. Pub. Transportation Assn., http://www.apta.com/passengertransport/Documents/archive_2984.htm; Geisz, Study Shows Commuting from New Jersey to New York by Train Instead of by Car Ups Physical Activity, Reduces Stress (Feb. 2007) Robert Wood Johnson Found., http://www.rwjf.org/reports/grr/044743.htm; Bhat & Sardesai, The impact of stop-making and travel time reliability on commute mode choice (2006) 40 Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 9, pp. 709-730, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/transportation-research-part-b.pdf; Roma, Hursh, Mead, & Nesthus, Analysis of Commute Times and Neurobehavioral Performance Capacity in Aviation Cabin Crew (Sept. 2012) Fed. Aviation Administration, Office of Aerospace Med., http://www.faa.gov/data_research/research/med_humanfacs/oamtechreports/2010s/media/201214.pdf; Press Release, Long-distance commuters get divorced more often (May 24, 2011) Umeå Univ., http://www.samfak.umu.se/english/about-the-faculty/news/newsdetailpage/long-distance-commuters-get-divorced-more-often.cid160978?utm_content=bufferf425d&utm_source=buffer&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=Buffer; Evans & Wener, Rail Commuting Duration and Passenger Stress (2006) 25 Health Psychology 3, pp. 408–412, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/evans-et-al-rail-commuting-duration-and-passenger-stress.pdf; Bailey, Longer train commutes are more stressful, study finds (Sept. 2006) 37 Am. Psychological Assn. 8, p. 12, http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep06/commutes.aspx; Sandow, On the road: Social aspects of commuting long distances to work (2011) Umeå Univ. , Dept. of Social & Economic Geography, http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:415050/FULLTEXT01.pdf; Sandow, Till Work Do Us Part – The Social Fallacy of Long-Distance Commuting (Aug. 2010) Conference Paper: ERSA-NECTAR Special Session on Commuting, Migration, Housing and Labour Markets, http://www-sre.wu.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa10/ERSA2010finalpaper732.pdf; Nat. Research Council, The Effects of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue (Nat. Academies Press 2011) http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13201&page=R1; Lang, Angst and the rail commuter: longer the trip, greater the stress, study finds (Aug. 4, 2006) Cornell Chronicle, http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2006/08/angst-and-rail-commuter-longer-trip-greater-stress; MacDonald, Stokes, Cohen, Kofner, & Ridgeway, The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity (Aug. 2010) 39 Am. J. Preventative Med. 2, pp. 105–112, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2919301/ [author’s manuscript]; Rissel, Mulley, & Ding, Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University (Aug. 2013) 10 Internat. J. Environmental Research Pub. Health 8, pp. 3563–3577, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774454/.)

304.7. (Hoehner, Barlow, Allen, & Schootman, Commuting Distance, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Risk (Jun. 2012) 42 Am. J. Preventative Med. 6, pp. 571-578, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/hoehner-et-al-commuting-distance-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-metabolic-risk.pdf, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3360418/ [author’s manuscript].)

304.8. Novaco & Gonzalez, Commuting and Well-being, publish. in Technology and Psychological Well-being (Amichai-Hamburger, edit., Cambridge Univ. Press 2011) pp. 174-205, http://www.its.uci.edu/its/publications/papers/JOURNALS/Novaco_Commuting-2.pdf.)

304.9. (Hansson, Mattisson, Björk, Östergren, & Jakobsson, Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden (Oct. 31, 2011) 11 BMC Pub. Health 834, pp. 1-14, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226527/, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/hansson-et-al-relationship-between-commuting-and-health-outcomes-in-a-cross-sectional-population-survey-in-southern-sweden.pdf.)

305. (Palmer, Health of People who Travel to Work: The Effect of Travel Time and Mode of Transport on Health (Jun. 2005) Univ. of Kent, Centre for Health Services Studies, http://www.kent.ac.uk/chss/docs/commuter.pdf; see also, Nelen, Does Commuting Affect Health? (Feb. 2012) Univ. Wuppertal, Research Centre for Education and the Labor Market, https://espe.conference-services.net/resources/321/2907/pdf/ESPE2012_0484_paper.pdf.)

305.1. (Young, Reynolds, Sidell, Brar, Ghai, Sternfeld, Jacobsen, Slezak, Caan, & Quinn, Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time on the Risk of Heart Failure (2014) 7 Circulation: Heart Failure , pp. 21-27, http://circheartfailure.ahajournals.org/content/7/1/21.abstract.)

305.2. (Dunstan, Barr, Healy, Salmon, Shaw, Balkau, Magliano, Cameron, Zimmet, & Owen, Television Viewing Time and Mortality: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) (2010) 121 Circulation, pp. 384-391, http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/121/3/384.short.)

305.3. (Lee, Shiroma, Lobelo, Puska, Blair, & Katzmarzyk, Impact of Physical Inactivity on the World’s Major Non-Communicable Diseases (Jul. 21, 2012) 380 Lancet 9838, pp. 219-229, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645500/ [author’s manuscript].)

305.4. (Ravb, Don’t just sit there. Really. (May 25, 2013) Los Angeles Times, http://articles.latimes.com/2013/may/25/health/la-he-dont-sit-20130525; see also, Reynolds, Get Up. Get Out. Don’t Sit (Oct. 17, 2012) N.Y. Times, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/17/get-up-get-out-dont-sit/; Vlahos, Is Sitting a Lethal Activity? (Apr. 14, 2011) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/magazine/mag-17sitting-t.html?_r=1&; Levine, Sitting risks: How harmful is too much sitting? (Jun. 16, 2012) Mayo Clinic, http://www.mayoclinic.org/sitting/expert-answers/faq-20058005.)

305.5. (Pereira, Moreno, & Louzada, Increased commuting to school time reduces sleep duration in adolescents (2014) 31 Chronobiology Internat. 1, pp. 87–94, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/pereira-et-al-increased-commuting-to-school-time-reduces-sleep-duration-in-adolescents.pdf.)

305.6. (Martınez-Gomez, Veiga, Gomez-Martinez, Zapatera, Calle, & Marcos, Behavioural correlates of active commuting to school in Spanish adolescents: The AFINOS (Physical Activity as a Preventive Measure Against Overweight, Obesity, Infections, Allergies, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents) study (2011) 31 Pub. Health Nutritition, pp. 1–8, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=8362300&jid=PHN&volumeId=14&issueId=10&aid=8362299&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1368980010003253.)

Early Starting Schools vs. Adolescent Sleep, Welfare, & Cognition

306. (Press Release, Study: Homeschool Students Sleep Better (Mar. 6, 2013) Nat. Jewish Health, http://www.nationaljewish.org/about/mediacenter/pressreleases/2013/homeschool-sleep/.)

307. (Wolfson, Carskadon, Acebo, Seifer, Fallone, Labyak, & Martin, Evidence for the Validity of a Sleep Habits Survey for Adolescents (2003) 26 Sleep 2,  www.journalsleep.org/Articles/260214.pdf.)

308. (Sadeh, McGuire, Sachs, Seifer, Tremblay, Civita, & Hayden, Sleep and psychological characteristics of children on a psychiatric inpatient unit (1995) 34 J. Am. Academy Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 6, 813-819, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-and-psychological-characteristics-of-children-on-a-psychiatric-inpatient-unit.pdf.)

309. (Wahlstrom, Dretzke, Gordon, Peterson, Edwards, & Gdula, Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study (Feb. 2014) CAREI, Univ. Minn., pp. 1-72, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/wahlstrom-et-al-impact-of-later-start-time-final-report-feb-2014.pdf.)

310. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra, p. 16, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=16.) Tracy Carbone, M.D., Director of The Valley Hospital Pediatric Sleep Disorders and Apnea Center: “We have an expression that you can never pay back a sleep debt[.] If during the week you get two hours less sleep each night, even if you sleep five extra hours on Saturday and Sunday morning, it’s not the same as sleeping eight hours each night. In terms of your brain’s ability to compensate, it doesn’t level the playing field.” (Antonacci, High schools’ early starts deprive students of crucial sleep (Sept. 3, 2013) New Jersey.com, http://www.northjersey.com/news/222120551_High_schools__early_starts_deprive_students_of_crucial_sleep.html?c=y&page=3.)

311. (Bergin & Bergin, Sleep – The EZZZ Intervention (Dec. 2009/Jan. 2010) 67 Educational Leadership 4, http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/dec09/vol67/num04/Sleep%40_The_E-ZZZ_Intervention.aspx.)

312. (Hans, Dongen, Maislin, Mullington, & Dinges, The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: Dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation (2003) 26 Sleep 2, pp. 117-126, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/hans-the-cumulative-cost-of-additional-wakefulness-dose-response-effects-on-neurobehavioral-functions.pdf.)

313. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra,  p. 15, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=15.)

313.5. (Kim, Blue light from electronics disturbs sleep, especially for teenagers (Sept. 1, 2014) Wash. Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/blue-light-from-electronics-disturbs-sleep-especially-for-teenagers/2014/08/29/3edd2726-27a7-11e4-958c-268a320a60ce_story.html.)

314. (Short, Gradisar, Lack, Wright, Dewald, Wolfson, & Carskadon, A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sleep Duration Between U.S. and Australian Adolescents: The Effect of School Start Time, Parent-Set Bedtimes, and Extracurricular Load (2012) Health, Education, & Behavior, pp. 1-8, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/short-et-al-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-sleep-duration-between-u-s-and-australian-adolescents.pdf; see also, Olds, Maher, Blunden, & Matricciani, Normative Data on the Sleep Habits of Australian Children and Adolescents (2010) 33 Sleep 10, pp. 1381-1388, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=27924.)

314.5. (Pope, Colleges find sleep is key to grade average (Sept. 4, 2012) Huffington Post,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/31/colleges-open-their-eyes-_n_1846148.html.)

Advancing School Start Times; i.e., Inviting Injury 

315. (Teen Automobile Crash Rates are Higher When School Starts Earlier (May 12, 2010) Am. Acad. Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/Articles.aspx?id=1685; see also, Walsh, APSS: Later School Start Times May Cut Teen Car Crashes (Jun. 11, 2010) Medpage Today, http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/APSS/20622.)

316. (Nolan, Alarm being sounded on early bell times (Jun. 7, 2012) The Spectator, http://www.thespec.com/news/local/article/738994–alarm-being-sounded-on-early-bell-times.)

317. (TroxelThe high cost of sleepy teens (May 23, 2012) Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/opinion/perspectives/the-high-cost-of-sleepy-teens-637135/; see also, ButtersTired teens robbed of a fair shot (May 1, 2012) Trib LIVE, http://triblive.com/opinion/featuredcommentary/1294197-74/schools-teens-sleep-start-students-pittsburgh-research-university-later-public?printerfriendly=true.)

318. (Cortes, Bricker, & Rohlfs, The Role of Specific Subjects in Education Production Functions: Evidence from Morning Classes in Chicago Public High Schools (2012) 12 B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 1, Art. 27, pp. 1-34, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/cortes-bricker-and-rohlfs-the-role-of-specific-subjects-in-education-production-function.pdf [published study], http://ftp.iza.org/dp5031.pdf [draft copy].)

319. (Powell, Bleary America needs some shut-eye: Forum points to schools, hospitals, factories as ripe for sleep reform (Mar. 8, 2012) Harvard Science, http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/03/sleep/.)

320. (Dunn, New teachers contract approved in Cherry Hill (Nov. 19, 2012) Courier-Post [archived], http://www.courierpostonline.com/article/20121120/NEWS01/311200019/New-teachers-contract-approved-Cherry-Hill; Walsh, Earlier classes to benefit Cherry Hill student-athletes (Nov. 18, 2012) Courier-Post [archived], http://www.courierpostonline.com/article/20121119/NEWS01/311190011/Earlier-classes-benefit-Cherry-Hill-student-athletes; Littel, Cherry Hill School Board OK’s Teacher Contract, Earlier School Day (Nov. 20, 2012) Cherry Hill Patch.)

321. (Riordan, Controversy over Cherry Hill’s new earlier school day (Nov. 30, 2012) philly.com, http://articles.philly.com/2012-11-30/news/35437209_1_cherry-hill-education-association-maureen-reusche-high-school-students.)

323. (Hanushek, Valuing Teachers (Summer 2011) 11 Education Next 3, http://educationnext.org/valuing-teachers/; see also, Pittman, Can an Hour a Day Keep the F’s Away? (Aug. 8, 2011) SparkAction, http://sparkaction.org/content/can-hour-day-keep-f%E2%80%99s-away.)

324. (Hanushek, Woessmann, Jamison, & Jamison, Education and Economic Growth (Spr. 2008) 8 Education Next 2, http://educationnext.org/education-and-economic-growth/.)

325. (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation & Development, The High Cost of Low Educational Performance: The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes (2010) Programme for Internat. Student Assessment, http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%2BWoessmann%202010%20OECD_0.pdf.)

A.   Academic Performance

326. (Eliasson, Gould, King, Eliasson, & Eliasson, Association of Sleep and Academic Performance (2002) 6 Sleep and Breathing 1, 45-48, http://web.mit.edu/writing/2010/July/EliassonEtAl2002.pdf.)

327. (Eide & Showalter, Sleep and Student Achievement (2012) East. Economic J., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/sleep-and-student-achievement.pdf; see also, Editorial, Sleepless in America: School start times (2012) 30 Education and Health 3, pp. 57-59, http://sheu.org.uk/x/eh303ed1.pdf.) As noted in the main text, the findings of Eide and Showalter (n. 327), and Eliasson, et al. (n. 326), appear at odds with the weight of authority. (See, e.g., 2, 29, 30, 34, 181.) The abstract of a forthcoming study is consistent with these latter studies, finding poorer school records among adolescents sleeping fewer than 7 hours than those sleeping more than 7 hours. (N. 405, p. A314, No. 0917.)

328. (Carskadon & Owens, Sleep Guidance for Kids and Teens Is Based on Sound Science (Mar. 16, 2012) Huffpost Healthy Living, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-a-carskadon-phd/kids-sleep_b_1348872.html.)

329. (Breus, How Much Sleep for Teens? (Mar. 21, 2012) Huffpost Healthy Living, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-michael-j-breus/sleep_b_1362886.html.)

330. (Dewald, Meijer, Oort, Kerkhof, & BögelsThe influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review (2010) Sleep Med. Rev. 14, pp. 179–189, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dewald-et-al-the-influence-of-sleep-quality-sleep-duration-and-sleepiness-on-school-performance-in-children-and-adolescents-a-meta-analytic-review.pdf.) A 2002 study of Chicago Public Schools (relying upon students’ self-reported grade point averages) found the amount of time spent on homework to be the best predictor of academic performance rather than total sleep time. Notably, 80% of the students believed they were not getting adequate sleep. (N. 326.) An earlier study, however, found that high school students who sleep less than six hours a night generally have poorer grades even when they report studying the same number of hours as higher-achieving students. (N. 35; see also, n. 318 [students in Chicago Public Schools receive lower grades and are more likely to be absent in 8 a.m. first period classes compared to other classes]; n. 332; Pagel & Kwiatkowski, Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels (2010) Frontiers in Neurology 1:125 doi:10.3389/fneur.2010.00125, http://www.frontiersin.org/sleep_and_chronobiology/10.3389/fneur.2010.00125/full; Yan & Slagle, What Has Research Told Us About School Schedule, Sleep Time, and Student Achievement? (Apr. 2007) Teachers College Record, http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=14030 [abstract], full draft of pre-publication version here, http://sites.google.com/site/wakefairfax/starttimeachievement.pdf [questioning, inter alia, the accuracy of self-reported grades]; Howell, Jahrig, & Powell, Sleep quality, sleep propensity and academic performance (Oct. 2004) 99 Perceptual & Motor Skills 2, 525-535, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleep-quality-sleep-propensity-and-academic-performance.pdf [full-time students in an introductory psychology course reporting poor sleep quality performed less well on academic measures than those reporting a better quality of sleep; neither sleep propensity nor sleep quality impacted the performance of part-time students].) A survey of 6,632 students from 349 secondary schools across Italy found an association between increased complaints of daytime sleepiness and poor academic achievement, greater use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, sleep problems, evening phase preference, anxiety, and depressive mood. (Gianotti & Cortesi, Sleep Patterns and Daytime Function in Adolescents: An Epidemiological Survey of an Italian High School Student Sample, publish. in, Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences, supra, pp. 132-147; cf., Perez-Chada, Perez-Lloret, Videla, Cardinali, Bergna, Fernández-Acquier, Larrateguy, Zabert, & Drake, Sleep Disordered Breathing And Daytime Sleepiness Are Associated With Poor Academic Performance In Teenagers. A Study Using The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) (Dec. 1, 2007) 30 Sleep 12, 1698–1703, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276125/; Gray & Watson, General and specific traits of personality and their relation to sleep and academic performance (Apr. 2002) 70 J. Personality 2, 177-206, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11908845 [abstract only].)

331. Kim, Lee, Cho, Cho, Lim, & Lim, Relationship Between Weekend Catch-up Sleep and Poor Performance on Attention Tasks in Korean Adolescents (Sept. 2011) 165 Archives Pediatric & Adolescent Med. 9, pp. 806-812, http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1107586

332. (Gillen-O’Neel, Huynh, & FuliginiTo Study or to Sleep? The Academic Costs of Extra Studying at the Expense of Sleep (2012) 84 Child Development 1, pp. 133-142, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/gillen-oneel-to-study-or-to-sleep.pdf [published version], https://www.sleepdoc.com/pdf/study%20or%20sleep.pdf [draft copy].)

Larks v. Owls

333. (Giannotti, Cortesi, Sebastiani, & Ottaviano, Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence (2002) J. Sleep Research 11, pp. 191-199, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/giannotti-et-al-circadian-preference-sleep-and-daytime-behaviour-in-adolescence.pdf.)

334. (Kanazawa & Perina, Why night owls are more intelligent (2009) 47 Personality and Individual Differences 7, pp. 685–690, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/kanazawa-why-night-owls-are-more-intelligent.pdf.)

335. (Roberts & Kyllonen, Morningness-eveningness and intelligence: early to bed, early to rise will likely make you anything but wise! (Dec. 1999) 27 Personality & Individual Differences 6, pp. 1123-1133, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/roberts-et-al-morningness-eveningness-and-intelligence-early-to-bed-early-to-rise-will-likely-make-you-anything-but-wise.pdf.)

336. (Preckel, Lipnevich, Schneider, & Roberts, Chronotype, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement: A meta-analytic investigation (Oct. 2011) 21 Learning & Individual Differences 5, pp. 483-492, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/preckel-et-al-chronotype-cognitive-abilities-and-academic-achievement-a-meta-analytic-investigation.pdf.)

Start Times and Academic Achievement

341. (Wahlstrom, Later High School Start Times Improve Student Learning and Health (Aug. 24, 2012) Univ. Minn., College of Education & Human Development, Vision 2020 Blog, http://cehdvision2020.umn.edu/cehd-blog/later-high-school-start-times/.) This article misstates the previous Minneapolis start time as 7:20 a.m. rather than 7:15 a.m. (N. 37, p. 3; see also, Wahlstrom, Davison, Choi, & Ross, Minneapolis Public Schools Start Time Study Executive Summary (Aug. 2001) CAREI, http://www.cehd.umn.edu/carei/publications/documents/SST-2001ES.pdf, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/3874/1/CAREI%20SST-2001ES.pdf; Wahlstrom, Wrobel, & Kubow, Minneapolis Public Schools Start Time Study Executive Summary (Nov. 1998) CAREI, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/3902/1/CAREI%20SST-1998ES.pdf.)

342. (Kalish, Early Bird Gets the Bad Grade (Jan. 14, 2008) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/14/opinion/14kalish.html; see also, Brody, Zombie Prevention: Your Child’s Sleep (May 23, 2011) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/24/health/24brody.html?pagewanted=1; Chen, Why Starting School at 8:30 May Benefit Public High School Students (Jan. 14, 2010) Pub. School Rev., http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/186.)

343. (School Start Time Study: Final Rep. Summary (1998) Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI), Univ. Minn., http://www.cehd.umn.edu/carei/publications/documents/SST-1998VI.pdf, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/4221/1/CAREI%20SST-1998VI.pdf; School Start Time Study, Technical Rep., Vol. II: Analysis of Student Survey Data, CAREI, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/4249/1/CAREI%20SST-1998VII.pdf, http://www.cehd.umn.edu/carei/publications/documents/SST-1998VII.pdf; see also, Wahlstrom, School start time & teen sleep (May 2000) 7 High School Magazine 9, 40-41,  www.fcps.edu/fts/taskforce07/documents/nasspstarttimes.pdf; Kubow, Wahlstrom, & Bemis, Starting Time and School Life: Reflections from Educators and Students (Jan. 1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, 366-371, http://www.fcps.edu/fts/taskforce07/documents/starttimeschoollife.pdf.) Additional CAREI Reports available here, http://blog.lib.umn.edu/cehd/carei/.

350. (McManus, Glenn Hills principal wants to start school at later time (Apr. 26, 2012) Augusta Chronicle, http://chronicle.augusta.com/news/education/2012-04-26/glenn-hills-principal-wants-start-school-later-time?mmo_ccc=xfinity.)

351. (Comer, Owens ’80 advocates later start for more sleep (Sept. 27, 2010) The Brown Daily Herald, http://www.browndailyherald.com/owens-80-advocates-later-start-for-more-sleep-1.2343466.)

352. (Quan, Podcast Transcript (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Medicine 2, pp. 1-2, http://www.aasmnet.org/jcsm/rss/transcripts/0702.pdf.)

353. (Vedaa, Saxvig, Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Bjorvatn, & Pallesen, School start time, sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian adolescents (Feb. 2012) Scandinavian J. Educational Research, pp. 55-67, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/school-start-time-sleepiness-and-functioning-in-norwegian-adolescents.pdf.)

354. (Edwards, Do Schools Begin Too Early? (Summer 2012) 12 Education Next 3, http://educationnext.org/do-schools-begin-too-early/; External Relations, School Start Times Found to Affect Student Achievement (May 3, 2012) Education Next, http://educationnext.org/school-start-times-found-to-affect-student-achievement/Do Schools Begin Too Early? (May 18, 2012) Nat. Center for Policy Analysis, http://www.ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=21937; see also, Hanushek, Krueger, & Rice, The Class Size Debate (Mishel & Rothstein, edits., Economic Policy Inst., 2002), http://hanushek.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Hanushek%202002%20ClassSizeDebate.pdf.)

355. (Buckhalt, Can Later Start Times Affect School Achievement? (Sept. 30, 2012) Psychology Today, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/child-sleep-zzzs/201209/can-later-start-times-affect-school-achievement; Snider, In the dark about early morning school buses (Jan. 4, 2013) Education Week [none of the top 20 private schools in the U.S., as rated by Forbes Magazine, starts school before 8:00 am.], http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/01/04/15snider.h32.html?tkn=MSMFIwP8AmRPD5yWU2H2%2FVyesGzFksoP%2BOLP&cmp=clp-edweek&print=1.)

356. (Hinrichs, When the Bell Tolls: The Effects of School Starting Times on Academic Achievement (2011) 6 Education Finance & Policy 4, 1-22, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/hinrichs-when-the-bell-tolls-the-effects-of-school-starting-times-on-academic-achievement.pdfhttp://www.clevelandfed.org/research/economists/hinrichs/hinrichs_schoolstarttimes_072310.pdf [draft copy].)

B.   Depression, Anxiety, and Fatigue

380. (Depression in Children and Adolescents, Univ. Louisville, http://louisville.edu/depression/understanding-depression/depression-in-children-and-adolescents.)

381. (Depression and Sleep, Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/depression-and-sleep.)

382. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra,  p. 20, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=20.)

383. (Dahl & Bjorvatn, The Bi-directional Association Between Insomnia and Anxiety (2009) 2 European Psychiatric Rev. 2, pp. 43-46, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dahl-et-al-the-bi-directional-association-between-insomnia-and-anxiety.pdf.)

384. (Brouillette, rev. of, Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Dec. 11, 2008) 359 New England J. Med. 24, p. 2623, http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMbkrev0805099; see also, Sleep Disorders in the Older Child and Teen (2009) Cleveland Clinic, http://my.clevelandclinic.org/Documents/Sleep_Disorders_Center/09_Adolescent_factsheet.pdf [recently downed link].)

386. (Roberts, Roberts, & Duong, Chronic Insomnia and Its Negative Consequences for Health and Functioning of Adolescents: A 12-Month Prospective Study (2008) 42 J. Adolescent Health 3, pp. 294–302, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/roberts-et-al-chronic-insomnia-and-its-negative-consequences-for-health-and-functioning-of-adolescents.pdf [original, pdf], http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(07)00409-0/fulltext [original, html & pdf], http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2488408/ [author manuscript].)

387. (Ramsawh, Stein, Belik, Jacobi, & Sareen, Relationship of anxiety disorders, sleep quality, and functional impairment in a community sample (2009) 43 J. Psychiatric Research, pp. 926–933, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/ramsawh-et-al-relationship-of-anxiety-disorders-sleep-quality-and-functional-impairment-in-a-community-sample.pdf.)

388. (Taylor, Lichstein, Durrence, Reidel, & Bush, Epidemiology of Insomnia, Depression, and Anxiety (2005) 28 Sleep 11, pp. 1457-1464, http://www.journalsleep.org/articles/281117.pdf.)

389. (Liu, Buysse, Gentzler, Kiss, Mayer, Kapornai, Vetró, & Kovacs, Insomnia and Hypersomnia Associated with Depressive Phenomenology and Comorbidity in Childhood Depression (2007) 30 Sleep 1, pp. 83-90, http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/300110.pdf, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=26720.)

390. (Gall & Stixrud, The 4 S’s of Adolescent Success (Summer 2008) Nat. Assoc. Indep. Schools, http://www.nais.org/Magazines-Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/The-4-S’s-of-Adolescent-Success.aspx.)

391. (Ang & Huan, Relationship between Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Testing for Depression as a Mediator Using Multiple Regression (2006) 37 Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 133–143, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/ang-and-huan-relationship-between-academic-stress-and-suicidal-ideation.pdf.)

392. (Depression in Children and Adolescents (2010) Univ. Mich. Depression Center, http://www.depressiontoolkit.org/lifespan/children.asp.)

C.   Risk of Suicidal Ideation & Completed Suicide

400. (Wong, Brower, & Zucker, Sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and self-harm behaviors in adolescence (Apr. 2010) 45 J. Psychiatric Research 4, 505-511, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3026917/.)

401. (Petersen, Kids Who Don’t Sleep Enough Are at Greater Risk for Depression, Anxiety Later (Jan. 18, 2011) Wall St. J., http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704029704576087943126802036.html.)

402. (Dearden, De La Cruz, Crookston, Novilla, & Clark, Adolescents at Risk: Depression, Low Academic Performance, Violence, and Alcohol Increase Bolivian Teenagers’ Risk of Attempted Suicide(2005) 8 Internat. Electronic J. Health Education, 104-119, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/dearden-et-al-adolescents-at-risk-depression-low-academic-performance-violence-alcohol-increase.pdf; see also, Richardson, Bergen, Martin, Roeger, & Allison, Perceived academic performance as an indicator of risk of attempted suicide in young adolescents (2005) 9 Archives of Suicide Research 2, 163-176, http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/eserv.php?pid=UQ:8494&dsID=gm1.pdf; Martin, Richardson, Bergen, Roeger, & Allison, Perceived academic performance, self-esteem and locus of control as indicators of need for assessment of adolescent suicide risk: implications for teachers (Feb. 2005) 28 J. Adolescence 1, 75-87, http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Perceived_Academic_Performance,_Self-Esteem__Implications_for_Teachers.pdf; Swedo, Rettew, Kuppenheimer, Lum, Dolan, & Goldberger, Can Adolescent Suicide Attempters Be Distinguished From At-Risk Adolescents? (Sept. 1991) 88 Pediatrics, 620-629 [school failure among environmental stressors distinguishing suicide attempters from control group], http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/can-adolescent-suicide-attempters-be-distinguished-from-at-risk-adolescents.pdf.)

403. (Sleep Experts Concerned About St. Paul Start Time Change (Jun. 3, 2011) CBS, http://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2011/06/03/sleep-experts-concerned-about-st-paul-start-time-change/.)

404. (Lee, Cho, Cho, & Kim, Insufficient Sleep and Suicidality in Adolescents (2012) 35 Sleep 4, pp. 455-460, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28459.)

405. (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Mortality Among Teenagers Aged 12-19 Years: United States, 1999-2006 (May 2010) Nat. Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db37.htm.)

406. (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Nat. Vital Statistics System, Mortality Tables, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/mortality/lcwk2.htm; see also, Maris, Suicide (Jul. 27, 2002) 359 Lancet 9329, 319-326.)

407. (Miniño, Xu, & Kochanek, Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2008 (Dec. 9, 2010) 59 Nat. Vital Statistics Rep. 2, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_02.pdf.)

408. (Kang, Leeb, Kimc, Lim, Lee, Park, Choa, Choa, & Hong, Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents (2014) 55 Comprehensive Psychiatry, pp. 319–325, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/kang-et-al-weekend-catch-up-sleep-is-independently-associated-with-suicide-attempts-and-self-injury-in-korean-adolescents.pdf.)

D.   Automobile & Pedestrian Accidents

419. (Durmer & Dinges, Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation (2005) 25 Seminars in Neurology 1, 117-129, http://www.med.upenn.edu/uep/user_documents/DurmerandDinges–NeurocognitiveConsequences–SEM.NEUROL.2005.pdf) “[R]ecent experiments reveal that following days of chronic sleep restriction, significant daytime cognitive dysfunction accumulates to levels comparable to that found after severe acute total sleep deprivation.” (Id., p. 125.)

420. (Crash rates may be higher for teen drivers who start school earlier (Apr. 12, 2011) Am. Acad. Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=2208.)

421. (Injury Prevention & Control: Motor Vehicle Safety, Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/MotorVehicleSafety/Teen_Drivers/teendrivers_factsheet.html.)

422. (Jackson, Croft, Owens, Pierce, Kennedy, Crewther, Howard, The effect of acute sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials in professional drivers (2008) 31 Sleep 9, pp. 1261-1269, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542966/#!po=82.1429.)

Sleep, Start Times, & Adolescent Driving Safety

423. (Cline, Do Later School Start Times Really Help High School Students? (Feb. 27, 2011) Psychology Today, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sleepless-in-america/201102/do-later-school-start-times-really-help-high-school-students.)

424. (Foss, Smith, Shi, & O’Brien, School Start Times and Teenage Driver Motor Vehicle Crashes (Oct. 2010) Highway Safety Research Center, Univ. N.C., Chapel Hill, http://www.csyd.unc.edu/projects/docs/HS_start_time.pdf.)

425. (Brandt, Snooze you win? It’s true for achieving hoop dreams, says study (Jul. 1, 2011) Stanford School of Medicine, http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2011/july/sleep.html.)

426. (Mah, Mah, Kezirian, & DementThe Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players (2011) 34 Sleep 7, pp. 943-950, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/mah-et-al-2011-effects-of-sleep-extension-on-athletic-performance.pdfhttp://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28194.)

427. (Pack, Pack, Rodgman, Cucchiara, Dinges, & Schwab, Characteristics of Crashes Attributed to the Driver Having Fallen Asleep (Dec. 1995) 27 Accident Analysis & Prevention 6, pp. 769-775, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/pack-et-al-characteristics-of-fall-asleep-crashes-1995.pdf; see also, Asleep at the Wheel: The Prevalence and Impact of Drowsy Driving (Nov. 2010) Am. Auto. Assn., Foundation for Traffic Safety, http://www.aaafoundation.org/pdf/2010DrowsyDrivingReport.pdf; Drobnich, A Nat. Sleep Foundation’s Conf. Summary: The Nat. Summit to Prevent Drowsy Driving and Call to Action (2005) 43 Industrial Health, pp. 197-200, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/drobnich-a-national-sleep-foundations-conf-summary-2005.pdf; Lyznicki, Doege, Davis, & Williams, Sleepiness, Driving, and Motor Vehicle Crashes (1998) 279 J. Am. Med. Assn. 23, pp. 1908-1913, http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?volume=279&issue=23&page=1908 [abstract only].)

428. (Ohio Department of Transportation (Aug. 23, 2011) Crashes Involving Teens Triple During Back-to-School, http://www.dot.state.oh.us/news/Pages/2011/Crashes-Involving-Teens-Triple-During-Back-to-School.aspx.)

428.5. (Ohio Department of Transportation (Aug. 23, 2011) Teen Driver Involved Crashes by Hour of Day and Full Week of August (2006 to 2010), http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/ohio-dept-transportation-back-to-school-treen-auto-crash-analysis.pdf [data/graphs].)

429. (Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop, supra, p. 17, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9941&page=17.)

430. (Mahowald & Bornemann, Drowsiness & Driving – A Dangerous Duo (May 2006) Minnesota Med., http://www.minnesotamedicine.com/PastIssues/PastIssues2006/May2006/CommentaryMahowaldMay2006/tabid/2466/Default.aspx.) “[I]t’s part of our 24/7 culture that we think that we should be able to burn the candle at both ends without suffering any consequences, and at some point, the brain seizes control and we involuntarily make the transition from wakefulness to sleep, even at very inappropriate circumstances.” (Most Night Shift Workers Don’t Adapt To The Hours (Apr. 23, 2011) Nat. Pub. Radio,http://www.npr.org/2011/04/21/135594251/sleep-deprivation-study.)

431. (Williamson & Feyer, Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication (2000) 57 Occup. & Environ. Med., 659-655, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1739867/pdf/v057p00649.pdf.)

432. (Teens and Sleep, Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/teens-and-sleep.)

433. (Leszczyszyn, Vorona, Szklo-Coxe, Lamichhane, McNallen, The Virginia Jurisdiction with an Earlier Public High School Start Time Again Demonstrates Greater Teen Crashes (2013) 36 J. Sleep, Abstract Supp., No. 1083, pp. A370-A371, http://www.journalsleep.org/Resources/Documents/2013AbstractSupplement.pdf.)

Sleep Restricted Adolescent Pedestrians

434. (Davis, Avis, & Schwebel, in press, The Effects of Acute Sleep Restriction on Adolescents’ Pedestrian Safety in a Virtual Environment (2013) J. Adolescent Health, pp. 1-6, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/davis-et-al-the-effects-of-acute-sleep-restriction-on-adolescents-pedestrian-safety.pdf.)

435. (Storr, Sleepy teen pedestrians more likely to get hit, UAB study says (May 7, 2012) Univ. Ala. Birmingham News, http://www.uab.edu/news/latest/item/2404-sleepy-teen-pedestrians-more-likely-to-get-hit-uab-study-says?tmpl=component&print=1.)

E.   Athletic Performance

440. (Sleivert, Performance Point, Canadian Sport Centre, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sleivert-performance-point.pdf.)

Sleep Restriction vs. Sleep Extension

441. (Aubrey, Want to Get Faster, Smarter? Sleep 10 Hours (Jun. 7, 2010) Nat. Pub. Radio, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=127478147; see, 2013 Sleep in America Poll, Exercise and Sleep: Summary of Findings (Feb. 20, 2013) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/RPT336%20Summary%20of%20Findings%2002%2020%202013.pdf.)

442. (Sleep Extension Improves Athletic Performance And Mood (Jun. 10, 2009) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090608071939.htm.)

443. (Ongoing Study Continues to Show that Extra Sleep Improves Athletic Performance (Jun. 4, 2008) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/Articles.aspx?id=954.)

444. (Extra Sleep Improves Athletes’ Performance (Jun. 14, 2007) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070613071054.htm.)

445. (Lamberg, Sleep May Be Athletes’ Best Performance Booster (Aug. 19, 2005) Psychiatric News, Vol. 40, No. 16, p. 21, http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsArticle.aspx?articleid=109237.)

446. (Christensen, Teens, sleep and new Seattle school starting times (Sept. 2, 2009) examiner.com, http://www.examiner.com/teen-issues-in-seattle/teens-sleep-and-new-seattle-school-starting-times?cid=parsely#parsely.)

448. (Study Shows Sleep Extension Improves Athletic Performance and Mood (May 29, 2009) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1291.)

449. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 34, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=34.)

449.1. (Press Release, Lack of Sleep Tied to Teen Sports Injuries (Oct. 21, 2012) Am. Academy of Pediatrics, http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/Lack-of-Sleep-Tied-to-Teen-Sports-Injuries.aspx; Lowry, Chronic lack of sleep makes teens prone to sports injuries (Oct. 23, 2012) Modern Med., http://www.modernmedicine.com/news/chronic-lack-sleep-makes-teens-prone-sports-injuries.)

449.2. (Jacobs, The secret to teen athletes’ success might be their sleep (Sept. 2, 2013) dallasnews, http://www.dallasnews.com/lifestyles/health-and-fitness/health/20130902-the-secret-to-teen-athletes-success-might-be-their-sleep.ece.)

450. (Getting Extra Sleep Improves the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Football Players (May 27, 2010) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1731.)

451. (Transcript of Interview with Sleep Researcher Cheri Mah, sleepbetter.org, http://sleepbetter.org/home/transcript-super-bowl-sleep-chari-mah/#.)

452. (Reyner & HorneSleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine (2013) 120 Physiology & Behavior, pp. 93-96, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/reyner-et-al-sleep-restriction-and-serving-accuracy-in-performance-tennis-players-and-effects-of-caffeine.pdf.)

Performance Timing

454. (Smith, Guilleminault, & Efron, Circadian Rhythms and Enhanced Athletic Performance in the National Football League (1997) 20 Sleep 5, pp. 362-365, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/smith-et-al-circadian-rhythms-and-enhanced-athletic-performance-in-the-nfl.pdf; Fontinakes & Mosko, Circadian Rhythms and the NFL, St. Joseph’s Hospital, Sleep Disorders Center, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/fontinakes-circadian-rhythms-and-the-nfl.pdf.)

455. (Drust, Waterhouse, Atkinson, Edwards, & Reilly, Circadian Rhythms in Sports Performance — An Update (2005) 22 Chronobiology Internat. 1, pp. 21–44, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/drust-circadian-rhythms-in-sports-performance-an-update.pdf.)

456. (Teo, Newton, & McGuigan, Circadian rhythms in exercise performance: Implications for hormonal and muscular adaptation  (2011) J. Sports Science & Medicine 10, pp. 600-606, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/teo-et-al-circadian-rhythms-in-exercise-performance-implications-for-hormonal-and-muscular-adaptation.pdf.)

457. (Steenland & Deddens, Effect of Travel and Rest on Performance of Professional Basketball Players (1997) 20 Sleep 5, pp. 366-369, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/steenland-and-deddens-effect-of-travel-and-rest-on-performance-of-professional-baskeball-players.pdf.)

458. (Winter, Hammond, Green, Zhang, Bliwise, Measuring circadian advantage in Major League Baseball: a 10-year retrospective study (Sept. 2009) Internat. J. Sports Physiology & Performance, pp. 394-401, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/winter-et-al-measuring-circadian-advantage-in-major-league-baseball.pdf.)

459. (Jehue, Street, & Huizenga, Effect of time zone and game time changes on team performance: National Football League (Jan. 1993) 25 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1, pp. 127-131,  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8423745 [abstract only].)

460. (Peak Performance Requires Optimal Sleep and Alertness (Spring 2008) 20 Olympic Coach 2, pp. 4-7, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/spring_2008_olympic_coach.pdf.)

Effects of Chronic Fatigue 

461. (Kutscher, Song, Wang, Upender, & Malow, Validation of a Statistical Model Predicting Possible Fatigue Effect in Major League Baseball (2013) 36 Sleep, Abstract Supp., p. A408, No. 1195, http://www.journalsleep.org/Resources/Documents/2013AbstractSupplement.pdf [abstract]; Wood, Vanderbilt study indicates fatigue and loss of sleep take predictable toll on baseball players over season (Jun. 4, 2013) researchnews@Vanderbilt, http://news.vanderbilt.edu/2013/06/vanderbilt-study-indicates-fatigue-and-loss-of-sleep-takes-predictable-toll-on-baseball-players-over-season/.)

462. (Potenziano, Pfeifer, Rogers, & Winter, Predicting Major League Baseball (MLB) Player Career Longevity Via Sleepiness Measurements (2013) 36 Sleep, Abstract Supp., p. A326, No. 0950, http://www.journalsleep.org/Resources/Documents/2013AbstractSupplement.pdf [abstract], http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/80/1_MeetingAbstracts/P01.260 [abstract]; Studies link fatigue and sleep to MLB performance and career longevity (May 30, 2013) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=3941.)

F.   Excessive Weight Gain

470. (Weiss, Xu, Storfer-Isser, Thomas, Ievers-Landis, & Redline, The Association of Sleep Duration with Adolescents’ Fat and Carbohydrate Consumption (Sept. 2010) 33 Sleep 9, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=27900; Yang, Sleep Deprivation Affects Teen Appetites (Sept. 3, 2010) Harv. Crimson, http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2010/9/3/sleep-redline-foods-less/.)

471. (Arble, Ramsey, Bass, & Turek, Circadian Disruption and Metabolic Disease: Findings from Animal Models (Oct. 2011) 24 Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 5, pp. 785-800, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3011935/; Am. Academy Sleep Med. (Jun. 14, 2011) Daytime sleepiness is associated with an increased craving for carbs among teens, http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=2323.)

472. (Ogden, Carroll, Curtin, Lamb, & Flegal, Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in US Children and Adolescents, 2007-2008 (Jan. 2010) 303 J. Am. Med. Assn. 3, 242-249, http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=185233; see also, Singh, Kogan, & van Dyck, Changes in State-Specific Childhood Obesity and Overweight Prevalence in the United States From 2003 to 2007 (Jul. 2010) 164 Archives Pediatric & Adolescent Med. 7, pp. 598-607, http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=383471.)

473. (Sung, Beebe, VanDyke, Fenchel, Crimmins, Kirk, Hiscock, Amin, & Wake, Does Sleep Duration Predict Metabolic Risk in Obese Adolescents Attending Tertiary Services? A Cross-Sectional Study (Jul. 2011) 34 Sleep 7, 891-898, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28189, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21731139.)

474. (Lumeng, Somashekar, Appugliese, Kaciroti, Corwyn, & Bradley, Shorter Sleep Duration Is Associated With Increased Risk for Being Overweight at Ages 9 to 12 Years (Nov. 2007) 120 Pediatrics 5, 1020-1029, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/120/5/1020.)

475. (Lytle, Pasch, & Farbaksh, The relationship between sleep and weight in a sample of adolescents (Feb. 2011) 19 Obesity 2, 324-331, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099473/?tool=pubmed; see also, Park, Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Obesity Among South Korean Adolescents (Aug. 2010) Western J. Nursing Research, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/association-between-short-sleep-duration-and-obesity-among-south-korean-adolescents.pdf.)

476. (Czeisler, Leape, Redline, & Hu, FIGHTING THE CLOCK: How America’s Sleep Deficit is Damaging Longterm Health (Mar. 6, 2012) The Forum at Harvard School of Public Health Presentation , https://sleep.med.harvard.edu/news/460/FIGHTING+THE+CLOCK+How+America+s+Sleep+Deficit+is+Damaging+Longterm+Health.)

477. (Roenneberg, Allebrandt, Merrow, & Vetter, in press, Social Jet Lag and Obesity (May 22, 2012) Current Biology 22, pp. 1-5, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/social-jet-lag-and-obesity.pdf; see also, Christian Benedict, Samantha J. Brooks, Owen G. O’Daly, Markus S. Almèn, Arvid Morell, Karin Åberg, Malin Gingnell, Bernd Schultes, Manfred Hallschmid, Jan-Erik Broman, Elna-Marie Larsson, and Helgi B. Schiöth, Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain’s Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study (Mar. 2012) 97 J. Clinical Endocrinol Metabolism 3, pp. E443–E447, http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/97/3/E443.full.pdf.)

G.   Risk-Taking & Delinquent Behavior

490. (Roper v. Simmons (2005) 543 U.S. 551, 569, citations omitted, italics in original, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/03-633.ZO.html; see also, Luna, The Relevance of Immaturities in the Juvenile Brain to Culpability and Rehabilitation (Aug. 2012) 63 Hastings Law J., pp. 1469-1483, http://www.njdc.info/pdf/2013_Resource_Guide/Luna_-_Relevance_of_Immaturities_in_the_Juvenile_Brain.pdf; Justice Policy Inst. (Apr. 2011) Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/finding-direction-expanding-criminal-justice-options-by-considering-policies-of-other-nations.pdf; id., Factsheet: Juvenile Justicehttp://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/juvenile_justice.pdf.)

491. (Chattanooga Crime Task Force Comm. (2008) Crime Task Force Rep., pp. 1-16, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/thompson-et-al-crime-task-force-report.pdf.)

492. (Hardy, Hamilton County Schools reluctant to change starting hours for classes (with video) (Apr. 24, 2013) timesfreepress.com, http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2013/apr/26/dreaming-for-more-sleep/.)

493. (Pollak & Bright, Caffeine Consumption and Weekly Sleep Patterns in US Seventh-, Eighth-, and Ninth-Graders (Jan. 2003) 111 Pediatrics 1, 42-46, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/pollak-caffeine-consumption-and-weekly-sleep-patterns-in-us-seventh-eighth-and-ninth-graders.pdf.)

494. (Seifert, Schaechter, Hershorin, & Lipshultz, Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents and Young Adults (Feb. 2011) 127 Pediatrics 3, 511-528, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/peds.2009-3592v1.pdf; see also, Committee on Nutrition & Council on Sports Med. and Fitness, Clinical Report–Sports Drinks and Energy Drinks for Children and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate? (May 2011) Pediatrics, 1182-1189, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/05/25/peds.2011-0965.full.pdf+html.)

495. (HarvardScience, Early marijuana use a bigger problem (Nov. 2010) Harvardgazette, http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/11/marijuana-study/.)

H.   Physical, Psychological, or Social Difficulties

509. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 26, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=26; see also, Gupta, Bhatia, Dahiya, Sharma, Sapra, Semalti, & Dua, Impact of primary headaches on subjective sleep parameters among adolescents (Jul-Sept. 2008) 11 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 3, pp. 164-168, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771978/.)

510. (Orzech, Acebo, Seifer, Barker, & Carskadon, Sleep patterns are associated with common illness in adolescents (2013) J. Sleep Research, pp. 1-10, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/orzech-et-al-sleep-patterns-associated-with-common-illness-in-adolescents.pdf; Bradley Hospital (Nov. 14, 2013) Catch Some ZZZs to Avoid Cold and Flu Season! Bradley Hospital Researchers Link Lack of Sleep in Teens to Higher Risk of Illness, http://www.bradleyhospital.org/Newsroom/News.aspx?NewsId=63827/Catch-Some-ZZZs-to-Avoid-Cold-and-Flu-Season!-Bradley-Hospital-Researchers-Link-Lack-of-Sleep-in-Teens-to-Higher-Risk-of-Illness/.)

511. (Mental Health, United States (2010) U.S. Dept. Health & Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Admin., http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Mental-Health-United-States-2010/SMA12-4681.)

512. (Schnog, Medicated students and mystified teachers (Oct. 4, 2010) Atlanta J. Const., http://www.ajc.com/opinion/medicated-students-and-mystified-658510.html.)

513. (Shatkin, The Parent Letter (Jan. 2007) 5 N.Y. Univ. Child Study Center 5, http://www.aboutourkids.org/files/articles/english_parent_letter_january_07.pdf.)

514. (Taki, Hashizume, Thyreau, Sassa, Takeuchi, Wu, Kotozaki, Nouchi, Asano, Asano, Fukuda, & Kawashima, Sleep duration during weekdays affects hippocampal gray matter volume in healthy children (Dec. 14, 2011) Neurolmage, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/sleep-duration-during-weekdays-affects-hippocampal-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-children.pdf; see also, Saey, Sleep allows brain to wash out junk: Discovery could lead to better treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (Oct. 17, 2013) Science News, https://www.sciencenews.org/article/sleep-allows-brain-wash-out-junk.) Schools start at about 8:30 a.m. in Japan. (Id., p. 4; see also, Jan, Reiter, Bax, Ribary, Freeman, & Wasdell, Long-term sleep disturbances in children: A cause of neuronal loss (2010) 14 Official J. of the European Paediatric Neurology Society, pp. 380-390, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/jan-et-al-long-term-sleep-disturbances-in-children-a-cause-of-neuronal-loss.pdf.) In some regions of Tirol, Austria, schools begin at 7:20 a.m. or 7:30 a.m. (School kids suffer under early starts after summer break (Sept. 24, 2013) Austrian Times, http://austriantimes.at/news/General_News/2013-09-24/49859/School_kids_suffer_under_early_starts_after_summer_break.)

515. (Dijk & Winsky-Sommerer, Sleep: How much we need and what keeps us awake (Feb. 9, 2012) New Scientist, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328503.100-sleep-how-much-we-need-and-what-keeps-us-awake.html?full=true [registration required to access article].)

516. (Press Release, Penn Medicine Researchers Show How Lost Sleep Leads to Lost Neurons (Mar. 18, 2014) Penn Med., http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2014/03/veasey/; Zhang, Zhu, Zhan, Fenik, Panossian, Wang, Reid, Lai, Davis, Baur, & Veasey, Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons (Mar. 19, 2014) 34 J. Neuroscience 12, pp. 4418-4431, http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/12/4418.abstract [abstract/pay wall].)

IV.   Delaying School Start Times: Practical Considerations and School-Aged Children

518. (Venkateshiah, Teenagers and Sleep (Nov. 10, 2011) Am. College Chest Physicians, Chest Physician Art., http://69.36.35.38/accp/article/chest-physician/teenagers-and-sleep.)

519. (Borlase, Gander, & Gibson, Effects of school start times and technology use on teenagers’ sleep: 1999–2008 (Jan. 2013) 11 Sleep and Biological Rhythms 1, pp. 46–54, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/borlase-et-al-effects-of-school-start-times-and-technology-use-on-teenagers-sleep-99-08.pdf.)

520. (Perkinson-Gloor, Lemola, & Grob, in press, Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: The role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times (Jan. 2013) J. Adolescence, pp. 1-8, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/perkinson-gloor-sleep-duration-positive-attitude-towards-life-and-academic-achievement.pdf.)

Economics & Transportation; i.e., When & For Whom To Send Which Buses

521. (Kolbert, Up All Night: The science of sleeplessness (Mar. 11, 2013) The New Yorker, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2013/03/11/130311fa_fact_kolbert.)

522. (Creel, Get up! Sleepy teens roam school halls while debate goes on about changing start times (Aug. 21, 2010), Buffalo News.com, http://buffalonews.com/article/20100408/LIFE04/304089899; see also, Kurek, High schools can change start times (May 2011) insideHALTON.com, http://www.insidehalton.com/community/education/article/1012961–high-schools-can-change-start-times.)

523. (Schwab & Schwab (May 2007) The Role of Sleep Deprivation on Academic Performance in Adolescents, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/schwab-and-schwab-the-role-of-sleep-deprivation-on-academic-performance-in-adolescents.pdf.)

523.5. (Byrne, Owatonna sleep lab director, U of M study tout sleep needs of teens (Dec. 31, 2013) Owatonna People’s Press, http://www.southernminn.com/owatonna_peoples_press/news/article_0c11bfd3-8fef-5421-8674-a231616ef1da.html.)

523.6. (Kelly, Kelly, & Sacker, Time for bed: associations with cognitive performance in 7-year-old children: a longitudinal population-based study (2013) 132 Pediatrics 5, pp. e1184-e1193, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/kelly-et-al-time-for-bed-associations-with-cognitive-performance-in-7-year-old-children.pdf.)

523.8. (Crowley, LeBourgeois, Reen, Acebo, Tarokh, Seifer, Barker, & Carskadon, A Longitudinal Assessment of Sleep Timing, Circadian Phase, and Phase Angle of Entrainment across Human Adolescence (Nov. 7, 2014) 9 Plos One 11, e112199, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0112199.)

524. (Appleman, Stavitsky, & Au, Impact of School Start Time Changes on Sleep Patterns in Elementary through High School Age Students (Mar. 2012) Nat. Sleep Foundation, Sleep, Health & Safety Conf., Wash. D.C., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/appleman-national-sleep-foundation-nsf-poster-final-2-12.pptx.)

524.5. (Sadeh, Raviv, & Gruber, Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children (2000) 36 Developmental Psychology 3, 291-301, http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/dev-363291.pdf.)

525. (Epstein, Chillag, & Lavie, Starting times of school: effects on daytime functioning of fifth-grade children in Israel (May 1998) 21 Sleep 3, 250-256, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/lavie-chillag-start-times-5th-graders.pdf, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=23991.)

526. (Astill, Van der Heijden, Van IJzendoorn, & Van Someren, Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed (2012) 138 Psychological Bull. 6, pp. 1109 –1138, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/astill-et-al-sleep-cognition-and-behavioral-problems-in-school-age-children-a-century-of-research-meta-analyzed.pdf.)

527. (Sadeh, Gruber, & Raviv, Sleep, Neurobehavioral Functioning, and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children (2002) 73 Child Development 2, pp. 405-417, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/sadeh-et-al-sleep-neurobehavioral-functioning-and-behavior-problems-in-school-age-children.pdf, http://sleep.tau.ac.il/schslpnes.pdf; see also, Sadeh, Gruber, & Raviv, The Effects of Sleep Restriction and Extension on School-Age Children: What a Difference an Hour Makes (Mar./Apr. 2003) 74 Child Development 2, pp. 444–455, http://www.tau.ac.il/~sadeh/clinic/sleep%20res-ext%202003.pdf.)

528. (Jenni & Carskadon, Normal Human Sleep at Different Ages: Infants to Adolescents, publish. in, Basics of Sleep Guide (Sleep Research Soc. 2000), pp. 11-19, http://www.scifun.org/conversations/Conversations4Teachers/Chapter%201.pdf, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/jenni-et-al-normal-human-sleep-at-different-ages.pdf.)

529. (Sleep Restriction Affects Children’s Speech (Jun. 27, 2007) Am. Academy Sleep Med., http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=464.)

530. (Primary Schoolchildren That Sleep Less Than 9 Hours Do Not Perform as Well Academically, Study Suggests (Sept. 13, 2011) Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110913103110.htm#.TnEyIqu-0MI.email.)

531. (Bub, Buckhalt, & El Sheikh, Children’s Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change Over Time (Sept. 2011) Developmental Psychology 6, pp. 1504–1514, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/childrens-sleep-and-cognitive-performance-a-cross-domain-analysis-of-change-over-time.pdf; see also, O’Brien, The neurocognitive effects of sleep disruption in children and adolescents (Oct. 2009) 18 Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics N. Am. 4, pp. 813-823, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/the-neurocognitive-effects-of-sleep-disruption-in-children-and-adolescents.pdfBuckhaltWolfson, & El Sheikh, Children’s Sleep and School Psychology Practice(Mar. 2009) 24 School Psychology Q. 1, pp. 60-61, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/buckhalt-et-al-childrens-sleep-and-school-psychology-practice1.pdfDahl, The impact of inadequate sleep on children’s daytime cognitive function (Mar. 1996) 3 Seminars Pediatric Neurology 1, pp. 44–50,http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1071909196800283 [abstract/pay wall].)

532. (Glaser, Getting in the back-to-school sleep routine (Aug. 3, 2012) KPLCtv.com, http://www.kplctv.com/story/19188552/getting-in-the-back-to-school-sleep-routine.)

533. (Executive Staff, Start School Later, http://www.startschoollater.net/executive-staff.html; see also; Snider, Push Back High School Start Times (May 18, 2012) Education Week, http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/05/16/31snider.h31.html?tkn=TNOFMKpCmFBd%2FGUP9T%2FMj%2F2CmeBUG%2FwUXqzn&intc=es.)

534. (Flyer (2011) Start School Later, http://www.startschoollater.net/uploads/9/7/9/6/9796500/ssl_flyer.pdf.)

535. (Li, Arguelles, Jiang, Chen, Jin, Yan, Tian, Hong, Qian, Zhang, Wang, & Shen, Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China (Jul. 10, 2013) Plos One, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0067928; see also, Buckhalt, Later School Start Time Benefit Supported by More Evidence (Sept. 17, 2013) Psychology Today, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/child-sleep-zzzs/201309/later-school-start-time-benefit-supported-more-evidence.)

535.5. (Sleep and Teens (2014) UCLA Sleep Disorders Center, http://sleepcenter.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=63.)

536. (Gruber, Cassoff, Frenette, Wiebe, & Carrier, Impact of Sleep Extension and Restriction on Children’s Emotional Lability and Impulsivity (Oct. 15, 2012) Pediatrics, e1155-e1166, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/gruber-et-al-impact-of-sleep-extension-and-restriction-on-childrens-emotional-lability-and-impulsivity.pdf, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2012/10/10/peds.2012-0564.abstract; see also, Press Release, More Sleep Linked to Improved Child Alertness, Behavior (Oct. 15, 2012) Am. Academy Pediatrics, http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/More-Sleep-Linked-to-Improved-Child-Alertness-Behavior.aspx.)

537. (2004 Sleep in America Poll (Mar. 2004) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/FINAL%20SOF%202004.pdf.)

Objections & Responses 

538. (Barrington Schools (Spring 2012) Survey Results Presentation, http://www2.barringtonschools.org/Document%20Library/School%20Start%20Time%20Survey%20Results%20Presentation%205%207%2012.pdf.)

539. (Barrington Schools (Spring 2012) Survey Data Summary, http://www2.barringtonschools.org/Document%20Library/School%20Start%20Time%20Survey%20Data%20Summary.pdf.)

544. (Rosenberg, More sleep means improved academic performance (Nov./Dec. 2012) 97 Am. Teacher 2, p. 3, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/rosenberg-more-sleep-means-improved-academic-performance.pdf.) College student Michael Monaco writes the counterpoint to Dr. Rosenberg’s article in a piece entitled, “Changing start times creates more problems.” (Id., p. 3.) Not all collegians share Mr. Monaco’s point of view. (See, e.g., Poindexter, Change In High School Start Times (May 15, 2013) Cassie Poindexters Blog, http://en101sp130412.blogspot.com/2013/05/essay-and-revisions.html.)

545. (Worried About Keeping Extra-curriculars, W.A.K.E., http://sites.google.com/site/wakefairfax/home; see also, YouTube, Marquette Senior High School Start Time Parody, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVnN0SZ8sHU&feature=related.)

546. (FCPS Do Not Push School Start Times Back (2009) Fairfax Underground, http://www.fairfaxunderground.com/forum/read/2/152102/154088.html, http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=51167851005.)

547. (Tanner, Study Shows Teens Benefit from Later School Day (Jul. 5, 2010) Assoc. Press, http://www.boston.com/news/education/k_12/articles/2010/07/05/study_shows_teens_benefit_from_later_school_day/, or, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/tanner-study-shows-teens-benefit-from-later-school-day-boston-com.pdf.)

548. (Sleep Hygiene – The Healthy Habits of Good Sleep (2010) Am. Academy Sleep Medicine, http://yoursleep.aasmnet.org/Hygiene.aspx; Univ. Md. Medical Center (Aug. 3, 2010) Sleep Hygiene: Helpful Hints to Help You Sleep, http://www.umm.edu/sleep/sleep_hyg.htm.)

549. (Stingl, Greenfield mom pushes later school start for groggy teens, J. Sentinel (Mar. 6, 2012) http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/greenfield-mom-pushes-later-school-start-for-groggy-teens-qd4fa93-141696123.html.)

550. (Squires, Students miss class time for sports, GPAs still up (Dec. 7, 2011) Winona Post, http://www.winonapost.com/stock/functions/VDG_Pub/detail.php?choice=45317&home_page=1&archives=.)

551. (Din, Sport Activities Versus Academic Achievement For Rural High School Students (2005-2006) 19 Nat. Forum of Applied Educational Research J. 3E, pp. 1-11, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/din-feng-s-sport-activities-versus-academic-achievement-for-rural-high-school-students1.pdf.)

552. (Cerve, Early high school start times affect teens’ ability to learn, studies find (Aug. 2010) islandpacket.com, http://www.islandpacket.com/2010/08/21/1345747/early-high-school-start-times.html.)

553. (Calhoun, Dissent Doesn’t Defer Changes in Parkway Schools’ Start Times (Sept. 22, 2011) CBS St. Louis, http://stlouis.cbslocal.com/2011/09/22/dissent-doesnt-defer-changes-in-parkway-schools-start-times/.)

555. (Bronson, Snooze or Lose (Oct. 7, 2007) N.Y. Mag., web p. 3, http:nymag.com/news/features/38951/index2.html.)

Implementation vs. “ABC” Management

556. (Christakis & ChristakisWhy Are We Depriving Our Teens of Sleep? (Nov. 18, 2011) Time, http://ideas.time.com/2011/11/18/why-are-we-depriving-our-teens-of-sleep/.)

557. (Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (1907), https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/adams-the-education-of-henry-adams.pdf.)

558. (Spielman, Pediatricians’ warning won’t force CPS to push back start times (Aug. 26, 2014) Politics Early & Often, http://www.suntimes.com/news/metro/29504126-761/pediatricians-warning-wont-force-cps-to-push-back-start-times.html#.VDlMj_ldVJI; see also, Cox, Should Sleep-Deprived Teens Get Later CPS Start Time? Hearings Sought (Sept. 10, 2014) DNAinfo Chicago, http://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20140910/downtown/should-sleep-deprived-teens-get-later-cps-start-time-hearings-sought.)

560. (Wolfson, Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice: What Will the 21st Century Look Like? publish. in, Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences, supra, pp. 198-219, http://www.sleepforscience.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/ccd8eb9fd3a8ec7d7b5c62db5181ace5/pdf/wolfson_asp_ch12.pdf.)

563. (Taboh, American Teenagers Dangerously Sleep Deprived: Tired teens physically, mentally, emotionally compromised (Sept. 9, 2010) VOA News, http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/American-Teenagers-Dangerously-Sleep-Deprived-102523339.html [includes link to brief audio interviews with sleep expert, Michael Breus, Ph.D., and St. George’s School headmaster, Eric Peterson, J.D.].)

564. (Shaddox, Delaying School Start Times Causes Alarm (Oct. 25, 2010) Miller-McCune, http://www.miller-mccune.com/education/delaying-school-start-times-causes-alarm-24662/.)

564.5. (More sleep for teens? Montgomery petition signed by thousands (Nov. 2, 2012) Wash. Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/montgomery-petition-to-let-high-schoolers-sleep-longer-signed-by-thousands/2012/11/02/805ccfb8-20fa-11e2-ac85-e669876c6a24_story.html; Gartner, Montgomery parents push for later start times for high schools (Oct. 17, 2012) The Examiner, http://washingtonexaminer.com/montgomery-parents-push-for-later-start-times-for-high-schools/article/2511045; see also, Walker, Arlington moms pushing for later high school start (Oct. 21, 2012) Star-Telegram, http://www.star-telegram.com/2012/10/21/4352376/arlington-moms-pushing-for-later.html; see also, New Research: Early School Start Times Are Unhealthy For Kids (May 1, 2013) CBS-Baltimore, http://baltimore.cbslocal.com/2013/04/29/new-research-early-school-start-times-are-unhealthy-for-kids/ .)

565. (Changing School Start Times: Wilton, Conn. (2005) Nat. Sleep Foundation Adolescent Sleep Initiative, Sleep for Teens, http://www.sleepinfairfax.org/docs/CS.Wilton.pdf.) In 2006, the Virginia PTA resolved to “encourage its constituent districts, councils and local unit members to educate their local school boards and superintendents on the importance of quality sleep and the positive impact that later school start times would have on the health, safety and productivity of teens[.]” (Resolution on the Impact of School Start Times on Student Health (2006) Va. PTA, http://www.vapta.org/documents-library/doc_view/2612-2006-the-impact-of-school-start-times-on-student-health-adopted.html.) In June of 2011, the Interlake High PTSA submitted a proposed Resolution for consideration by the Washington State PTA: “The WASHINGTON STATE PTA will encourage and support school start times that meet the optimum health requirements for sleep needs. [¶] Current scientific research shows that teens need more sleep than present school start times allow. Making start times later has been shown to help with student grades, attendance, driving safety, mood/depression, and aggression levels.” (Alignment of Sleep Requirements for Optimum Health with School Start Times (Jun. 13, 2011) Interlake High PTSA, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/washington-state-pta-sleep_resolution_proposal_2011_convention.pdf.)

566. (School Start Time Study Report (2002) Wilton League of Women Voters, http://www.wiltonlwv.org/images/stories/MiscPDFs/study-schoolstartjune2002.pdf.)

566.5. (Report on Adolescent Sleep Needs and School Start Times (Jun. 2006) League of Women Voters of New Canaan, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/new-canaan-league-of-women-voters-2006-report.pdf; id., Sleep Study Information, http://www.lwvnewcanaan.org/index.php/sleep-study-info/; see also, School Hours for Middle and High School Students (2005) League of Women Voters of Marion and Polk Counties, http://marionpolk.or.lwvnet.org/School_hours.html.)

567. (Park, School Should Start Later So Teens Can Sleep, Urge Doctors (Aug. 25, 2014) Time, http://time.com/3162265/school-should-start-later-so-teens-can-sleep-urge-doctors/.)

567.1. (Hess & Meeks, School Boards Circa 2010: Governance in the Accountability Era (2010) Nat. School Boards Assn., http://www.nsba.org/sites/default/files/SBcirca2010_WEB.pdf.)

567.2. (Hurwitz, PROFILES; The Super Bowl (Aug. 4, 2002) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/04/education/profiles-the-super-bowl.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.)

567.3. (Education Writers Assn., Effective Superintendents, Effective Boards: Finding the Right Fit, (2003) pp. 2-11, http://edsource.org/wp-content/uploads/leadership.pdf.)

567.4. (Overview of Continuing Education Requirements for School Board Members (Dec. 2008) Tex. Assn. of School Boards, http://www.tasb.org/training/cec/documents/cecmatrix_122008.pdf.)

567.5. (Miller, First, Kill All the School Boards (Jan./Feb. 2008) Atlantic Monthly, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/01/first-kill-all-the-school-boards/306579/?single_page=true.)

567.6. (Finn, School boards are an obstacle to education reform (Dec. 18, 2003) The Morning Call, http://articles.mcall.com/2003-12-18/opinion/3500867_1_school-board-charter-schools-board-and-superintendent; Elizabeth, School board reform elusive (Dec. 1, 2003) Post-Gazette, http://old.post-gazette.com/localnews/20031201boardsmainp2.asp; Elizabeth, School boards’ worth in doubt (Nov. 30, 2003) Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, http://old.post-gazette.com/localnews/20031130boardsmainlocal2p2.asp.)

567.7. (Elmore, Building a New Structure for School Leadership (Wint. 2000) Albert Shanker Inst., p. 18, http://www.politicalscience.uncc.edu/godwink/PPOL8687/Wk10%20March%2022%20Accountability/Elmore%20Building%20a%20New%20Structure%20for%20Leadership.pdf.)

567.9. (N.J. Sen. Bill 2484 (Oct. 14, 2014) 216th Leg., http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/2014/Bills/S2500/2484_I1.HTM.)

568. (Mass. Sen. Bill 215 (Jan. 2013) 188th Gen. Ct., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/massachusetts-bill-s215.pdf; see also, Joint Com. Education, Sen. Bill 192 (2009-2010 Reg. Sess.),  http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/mass-sen-bill-s00192.pdf.) In Massachusetts, Senator Cynthia Stone Creem has twice introduced legislation directing the Department of Education to survey high school start times and make recommendations as to whether classes should be delayed to improve academic performance. (Ibid.)

568.4. (Md. House Bill 1462 (2013 Reg. Sess.), http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2013RS/bills/hb/hb1462F.pdf.) Twenty Maryland state legislators co-sponsored legislation to create a task force to “study and make recommendations relating to a later starting time for Maryland public schools[.]” (Ibid.)

568.5. (Tenn. House Bill 2169 (2012 Reg. Sess.), http://wapp.capitol.tn.gov/apps/Billinfo/default.aspx?BillNumber=HB2169&ga=107; see also, Bergfeld, School Day Start Times (Apr. 2013) Tenn. Offices of Research & Education Accountability, http://www.comptroller.tn.gov/Repository/RE/Start%20Times%202013.pdf; Tenn. Sen. Bill 2589 (2012 Reg. Sess.), http://wapp.capitol.tn.gov/apps/Billinfo/default.aspx?BillNumber=HB2169&ga=107; Tenn House Res. 0188 (2012 Reg. Sess.), http://wapp.capitol.tn.gov/apps/BillInfo/Default.aspx?BillNumber=HR0188&ga=107.)

568.6. (Va. House Bill No. 34 (2014 Reg. Sess.), http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?141+sum+HB34; see also, Va. House Bill 1894 (2013 Reg. Sess.), http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?131+sum+HB1894; see also, Va. House Bill 1815, http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?031+ful+HB1815; Va. House Bill 1024 (2013 Reg. Sess.), http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?031+ful+HB1024.)

568.7. (Fla. House Bill 67 (Sept. 23, 2013), http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/florida-2013.pdf, http://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=51187.)

568.8. (Nev. Sen. Bill 212 (2005 Reg. Sess.), http://www.leg.state.nv.us/Session/73rd2005/Reports/history.cfm?ID=1781.)

569. (Conn. Sen. Com. Ed., Sen. Bill 14 (2001 Reg. Sess.), http://www.cga.ct.gov/2001/tob/s/pdf/2001SB-00014-R00-SB.pdf; Conn. Gen. Assembly Bill 14 (2001 Reg. Sess.), http://www.cga.ct.gov/2001/TOB/s/pdf/2001SB-00014-R01-SB.pdf.) In 2001, Senator Kevin Sullivan introduced a bill precluding any Connecticut public school from beginning morning classes before 8:30 a.m. (Ibid.) The bill apparently went nowhere after public hearing. (Gelb (Feb. 4, 2002) OLR Research Rep., http://www.cga.ct.gov/2002/rpt/2002-R-0173.htm; see also, Ed. Comm. Proceedings on Sen. Bill 14 (Feb. 16, 2001), http://www.cga.ct.gov/2001/eddata/chr/2001ED-00216-R001300-CHR.htm.)

570. (Conn. Gen. Assembly Bill 468 (2009 Reg. Sess.), http://www.cga.ct.gov/2009/TOB/s/pdf/2009SB-00468-R00-SB.pdf.)

571. (Minn. Sen. Bill 1300 (1997-1998 80th Sess.), https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?f=SF1300&y=1997&ssn=0&b=senate; see also, Minn. House Bill 1259 (1997-1998 80th Sess.), https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=House&f=HF1259&ssn=0&y=1997.) In 1997, the Minnesota state legislature considered a bill that would have prohibited high schools and junior highs from starting before 8 a.m. The bill did not pass. (Ibid.)

572. (H.Res. No. 135, 108th Cong., 1st Sess. (2003), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-108hconres135ih/pdf/BILLS-108hconres135ih.pdfhttp://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/pagedetails.action?na=&se=&sm=&flr=&ercode=&dateBrowse=&collection=&historical=false&st=H.+Con.+Res.+135+%28ih%29+8%3A30&=H.+Con.+Res.+135+%28ih%29&psh=&sbh=&tfh=&originalSearch=&sb=re&sb=re&ps=10&ps=10&granuleId=&packageId=BILLS-108hconres135ih.)

573. (H.Res. No. 176, 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (2009), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hconres176ih/pdf/BILLS-111hconres176ih.pdf; see also, Rep. Lofgren Webpage, Congresswoman Lofgren Urges Congress to ‘Wake-Up’ to the Problems of Adolescents Not Getting Enough [Sleep]http://lofgren.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=365990.)

574. (H.Res. No. 1267, 106th Cong., 1st Sess. (1999), http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h106-1267, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/pagedetails.action?na=&se=&sm=&flr=&ercode=&dateBrowse=&collection=&historical=false&st=1267+106+1999&=1267&psh=&sbh=&tfh=&originalSearch=&sb=re&sb=re&ps=10&ps=10&granuleId=HOB-1999-hr1267&packageId=HOB-1999; see also, n. 184.)

574.5. (McLoone, Should School Start Later in the Day? (Aug. 22, 2013) Greater Alexandria Patch, http://greateralexandria.patch.com/groups/back-to-school/p/should-school-start-later-in-the-day_12bd22aa, quoting Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education, via Twitter, @arneduncan (Aug. 19, 2013, screen capture here), commenting on Aug. 18, 2013, Wash. Post editorial, A smarter way to start high schoolers’ days, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-smarter-way-to-start-high-schoolers-days/2013/08/18/e2d24276-f49f-11e2-9434-60440856fadf_story.html.)

574.6. (A Back-To-School Conversation About Education (Sept. 4, 2013) The Diane Rehm Show, http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2013-09-04/back-school-conversation-about-education; Elliot, Education chief: Maybe start school day later (Sept. 4, 2013) Assoc. Press, http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/386c25518f464186bf7a2ac026580ce7/Article_2013-09-04-US-School-Start-Times-/id-14af5593df57452394da6249ccae1e98.)

575. (Louzada, Teixeira da Silva, Peixoto, & Menna-Barreto, The Adolescence Sleep Phase Delay: Causes, Consequences and Possible Interventions (Jul. 2008) 1 Sleep Science, 49-53, http://www.sleepscience.com.br/sleepscience/pdf/articles/vol1/SleepScience_vol1_issue01_art09.pdf.)

576. (Wrobel, The Impact of School Starting Time on Family Life (1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, 360-364, http://www.fcps.edu/fts/taskforce07/documents/impactfamilylife.pdf; see also, Start Time Task Force Rep., Appendix U, Community Impacts from Other Jurisdictions Changing to Later HS Start Times, And Other Local Data (2007) Fairfax County Public Schools, pp. 1-19, http://www.fcps.edu/fts/taskforce07/documents/finalreport/appendixu.pdf; Downs, On My Own Time: The Conflict Between Adolescent Sleep Needs and High School Start Times (2001) Center for Research and Evaluation, http://libraries.maine.edu/cre/38/No38.htm.)

577. (Shea, School districts use different strategies for scheduling sports and later high school start times (Jun. 12, 2012) Full Schooldays, http://www.fullschooldays.org/2012/06/12/school-districts-use-different-strategies-for-scheduling-sports-and-later-high-school-start-times/.)

578. (School Start Time and Sleep, Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/school-start-time-and-sleep.) Although the Los Angeles Times reported in August 2010 that no school districts have made the change to later start times and then switched back (Sohn, Later School Start Times and Zzz’s to A’s (Aug. 23, 2010) L.A. Times, web p. 5, http://articles.latimes.com/2010/aug/23/health/la-he-school-time-20100823/5; see also, n. 45), this does not appear to be correct. Many districts advance start times as needed to address budgetary/transportation concerns, without regard to student achievement or well-being. (Ns. 5, 12; see e.g., Appendix B, infra, Schools Recently Advancing Start Times, etc. [Moore County Schools, N.C.; Tahlequah Public Schools, Okla.; Jordan School District, Utah].) As previously noted, “The tail of transportation wags the dog of the educational system.” (N. 522.) Moreover, many school districts have delayed start times, then changed back in relatively short order, usually owing to considerations concerning budgets, athletics, politics, “hasty implementation[,]” or lack of awareness.(See, Appendix L, infra, Schools Recently Going Nowhere [Brunswick County Schools, N.C.]; see also, Appendix G, infra, Incognizant “Educators.”) In Orange County, Florida, for example, the start time change was undertaken to save money on transportation costs (Parents: Change Back School Start Times  (2009) wpbf.com), but was rescinded within the first semester of implementation. (Washington, School Board Votes To Reverse Start Times (Dec. 9, 2008) WESH.COM.) The plan appears to have been fundamentally flawed at least insofar as it left middle school students beginning classes at 7:30 a.m. (WESH.COM (Jul. 30, 2008) Orange Co. Schools OK Start Time Change), despite evidence showing negative outcomes associated with early start times for this population. (Ns. 22, 23, 30; cf., ns. 13, 44.) Parents complained middle schoolers waited for buses in darkness and high school students (whose morning classes were delayed until 9:30 a.m.) were getting out of school too late in the day (4:30 p.m.). (Cichanowski, School Start Times Flip and Flop (Jul. 30, 2009) Insight Mag., http://www.insighteastorlando.com/rollingfeatured/school-start-times-flip-and-flop/; cf. Critchley, Sleepy teens want later start (May 4, 2007) Herald Sun, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/sleepy-teens-want-later-start/story-e6frf7kx-1111113464985 [Australian secondary school shortens breaks to accommodate 9:45 a.m. start and 3 p.m. release].) In a 4-3 vote, a newly constituted school board restored high school start times to 7:20 a.m. and middle schools to 9:30 a.m. (Washington, School Board Votes To Reverse Start Times (Dec. 9, 2008) WESH.COM.) As previously noted, CAREI Director Kyla Wahlstrom cautions, “Incorrect assumptions, the use of only partial facts, and hasty implementation are frequent reasons that cause the defeat or demise of a local decision to change the start time.” (N. 293, p. 677.) There is no indication pertinent student health/performance factors (e.g., amount of sleep gained or lost, academic performance, automobile crash rates, graduation rates, student mood, fatigue, depression, etc.) were assessed in Orange County. (Cf., Wells, School-schedule flip has paid off (Dec. 9, 2008) Orlando Sentinel, http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2008-12-09/news/myword09wells_1_school-students-fifth-grade-middle-schooler.) In Pike County, Kentucky, start times were adjusted from 8 a.m. to 8:30 a.m., then back again after finding no change in student attendance over a 3-year period. The start time shift was not 7 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. as reported by Mr. Diconsiglio. (N. 179.) In early 2011, Bill Dotson, Director of Pupil Personnel for Pike County Schools, Kentucky, was contacted by Dennis Nolan. Mr. Dotson indicated Pike County has never had a start time earlier than 7:55 a.m. (cf. n. 651) and that the district rigorously enforces attendance requirements “through the courts.” As in Orange County, Florida, no other factors (e.g., quantity of sleep gained or lost, academic performance, automobile accidents, student mood, affect, etc.) were assessed. The Pike County attendance results, like those obtained by Hinrichs (n. 356), appear to be at least somewhat anomalous. In Fayette County, Kentucky, for example, school tardiness went down and attendance went up when start times were pushed back by one hour to 8:30 a.m. (N. 47; see, n. 2, pp. 85, 89.) In nearby Jessamine County, Kentucky, school start times were delayed 50 minutes to 8:40 a.m. for high schools. School District Supervisor Lu Young says the change has had a big impact. “We found that our students were more on time and in better attendance first period than they had been in the past.” (N. 48.) As noted previously, students attending an early starting New England middle school (7:15 a.m.) were nearly four times as likely to be tardy as students attending a later (8:37 a.m.) starting school. (N. 30, pp. 197, 204-207.) When morning classes were delayed by 30 minutes to 8:30 a.m., tardy/absence rates declined by 45% in Middletown, Rhode Island. (N. 41, p. 612.) Edwards found late starting Wake County middle school students less likely to be absent than their earlier starting peers. (N. 44, pp. 972, 982.) Cortes, et al., found Chicago public school students more likely to be absent from 8 a.m. first period classes than classes scheduled later in the day. (N. 318, p. 1.) In addition, Seattle Public SchoolsNathan Hale High School “increased attendance, increased achievement and created a better learning environment” by pushing back start times to 8:30 a.m. (N. 96.) A 2014 Brown University study of 197 students (mean age = 15.6 years) at a “highly competitive” independent boarding school, found that student tardiness declined following a modest start time delay, from 8 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. (N. 107, p. 15.) A 2014 CAREI study found that among six high schools implementing later start times, most schools saw a significant decrease in tardiness overall for students. (N. 309, p. 39.) Schools that had greater delays in school start times also tended to see the greatest decreases in tardiness. (Ibid.)

579. (Sykuta, Superintendent supports later start time (Feb. 6, 2013) Bearing News, http://www.bearingnews.org/2013/02/06/superintendent-supports-high-schools-latest-start-time/.)

A.   The Students’ Perspective

590. (Souronis, Teens vs. Sleep (Nov. 30, 2011) The Howl Online; Ogram & Furgeson, Teenagers Do Not Get Enough Sleep (Oct. 13, 2011) The Barracuda.)

591. (Dick, To sleep or not to sleep (Oct. 7, 2011) Panther Pride, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/dakota-valley-panther-pride.pdf; see, Snow, It’s Still Dark Out, Time for School! (Nov. 29, 2011) The Pentucket Profile; Heiner, Teenagers and Sleep (Mar. 16, 2012) The Danegeld [Viewmont High School, UT]; see also, Tritonian Staff, Teenage Dilemma—To Sleep or Not To Sleep (Dec. 6, 2012) The Tritonian; Mallari, To Sleep or Not to Sleep: That is the Question (Aug. 29, 2012) The Roar; Ayala, To Sleep or Not to Sleep (Sept. 19, 2003) Zebra Tales.)

592. (Abkin, Solution: Start School Later (Nov. 26, 2011) Edhat: Teen Voice, http://www.edhat.com/site/tidbit.cfm?nid=75162; see also, Fick, To Sleep or not to Sleep (Feb. 24, 2011) The System.)

594. (Mohr, What’s Your Issue? Need More Sleep! (Apr. 13, 2010) SchoolTube.com, http://www.schooltube.com/video/5cc94c9192ef79d46f68/Whats-Your-Issue-Need-More-Sleep; see also, Weber, To Sleep Or Not To Sleep? (Jan. 11, 2010) The Tiger Eye.)

595. (Shultz, TEMECULA: High school students seek later start (Oct. 31, 2011) The Californian; http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2011/Oct/31/temecula-high-school-students-seek-later-start/2/.)

596. (Mantikas, Reasons behind students drowsiness (Oct. 27, 2011) The Charles Street Times; see also, Martinez, Cole & Avitia, Students Prefer Late Start Tuesdays (Oct. 17, 2011) Monthly Mortonian.)

597. (von Thaden, Start Time Change (Nov. 2, 2011) Nauset Horizons; see, von Thaden, The Time Change: Is Good (Dec. 14, 2011) Nauset Horizons.)

598. (Sanchez, Late-Start (Nov. 16, 2011) The Express.)

599. (Delayed School Start Time Associated with Improvements in Adolescent Behaviors (Jul. 5, 2010) J. Am. Med. Assn. Press Release, http://pubs.ama-assn.org/media/2010a/0705.dtl#1.)

600. (Gardner, Later Start Times May Foster Better Students (Jul. 5, 2010) U.S. News & World Rep., http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/sleep/articles/2010/07/05/later-school-start-times-may-foster-better-students.)

601. (Press Release, Back to sleep: Most Northwest residents think teens don’t catch enough Zzzs, but agree with high school start times (Sept. 17, 2014) Business Journals, http://www.bizjournals.com/prnewswire/press_releases/2014/09/17/SF15021.)

B.   Physicians, Biological and Social Scientists on the Timing of Education

610. (Carskadon, For better student health, start school later (Sept. 5, 2012) Brown Univ., http://news.brown.edu/pressreleases/2012/09/hssleep.)

611. (Crabtree & Witcher, Impact of Sleep Loss on Children and Adolescents, publish. in, Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Informa Healthcare 2008, Ivanenko edit.) pp. 139-148, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/crabtree-witcher-impact-of-sleep-loss-on-children-and-adolescents.pdf.)

612. (Large, Shedding light on the teen brain (Jun. 8, 2009) The Seattle Times, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/jerrylarge/2009312466_jdl08.html.)

613. (Recommendation Rep. (Mar. 2008) N.J. Teen Driver Study Commission, Recommendation No. 6.4, p. 46, http://www.nj.gov/oag/hts/downloads/TDSC_Report_web.pdf.)

Start Time Recommendations, etc.

629. (Chopel, Sleep is Healthy: A Simple, Old Idea with Big Consequences (Spring 2013) Policy Matters J., http://www.policymattersjournal.org/sleep-is-healthy.html.)

630. (Deitz, Children’s Sleep: Time For A Wake-Up Call (Dec. 11, 2011) Huffpost: Healthy Living, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-deitz-md/children-sleep_b_1132517.html.)

632. (Kelley, The New York Times and school starting times in adolescence – a breakthrough? (Apr. 3, 2014) Making Minds, http://makingminds.net/2014/04/new-york-times-school-starting-times-adolescence-breakthrough/.)

634. (Burns, No More Dozing Off in First Period (Aug. 1, 2010) Miller-McCune, http://www.miller-mccune.com/health/no-more-dozing-off-in-first-period-19579/.)

C.   Medical Intervention: Minnesota, Connecticut, Rhode Island

643. (Res. 54-98, Reforming School Schedules (1998) Md. State Med. Assn.,  http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/maryland-medical-association-resolution-9-10-adol-sleep-final-2.pdf.)

644. (Lawton, For Whom the School Bell Tolls (Mar. 1999) Am. Assn. of School Administrators, http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=14850.)

645. (Changing School Start Times: Fayette County, Kentucky (2005) Nat. Sleep Foundation, Sleep for Teens, http://www.sleepinfairfax.org/docs/CS.Fayette.pdf.)

646. (Lim, Maas Pushes for Later Start Time at Schools (Feb. 26, 2009) Cornell Daily Sun, http://cornellsun.com/blog/2009/02/26/maas-pushes-for-later-start-time-at-schools/.)

Edina & Minneapolis, Minnesota

650. (Adolescent Sleep Needs and Patterns (2000) Nat. Sleep Foundation, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/national-sleep-foundation-adolescent-sleep-needs-and-patterns.pdf.)

651. (Martin, Late to Bed, Early to Rise Makes a Teen-Ager … Tired (Aug. 1, 1999) N.Y. Times, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/08/01/education/late-to-bed-early-to-rise-makes-a-teen-ager-tired.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.)

Wilton, Connecticut

654. (Emsellem & Whiteley, supra, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits, p. 213, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11633&page=213.)

655. (Bogan (2009) School Start Time Change in Wilton, CT, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/bogan-start-time-change-in-wilton-ct.png.)

Middletown, Rhode Island

D.   Will Students Squander the Opportunity for Extra Sleep?

664. (Sklarew, Getting A’s with More Z’s: The fight for later school starts has backing from doctors and statistics (Nov. 2011) Northern Virginia Magazine, http://www.northernvirginiamag.com/family/family-features/2011/11/23/getting-as-with-more-zs/.)

665. (Jenni, Achermann, & Carskadon, Homeostatic Sleep Regulation in Adolescents (2005) 28 Sleep 11, pp. 1446-1454, http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/281116.pdf.)

666. (Kira, Maddison, Hull, Blunden, & Olds, Sleep Education Improves the Sleep Duration of Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study (2014) 10 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 7, pp. 787, 792, https://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/kira-et-al-sleep-education-improves-the-sleep-duration-of-adolescents.pdf.)

667. (Short, Gradisar, Wright, Lack, Dohnt, & Carskadon, Time for Bed: Parent-Set Bedtimes Associated with Improved Sleep and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents (Jun. 2011) 34 Sleep 10, pp. 797-800, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098947/, or http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=28152.)

668. (Freyer, Study at R.I. boarding school finds more sleep for teens equals better performance (Jul. 7, 2010) Providence J., http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/the-providence-journal-owens-study.pdf.) 

Closing Observations 

670. (Lamberg, Teens aren’t lying — they really need to sleep later (Dec. 5, 1994) Am. Medical News, p. 24, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/teens-arent-lying-they-really-need-to-sleep-later-p-1.pdfid., p. 25, http://teensneedsleep.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/lamberg-amnews94bteens.pdf.)

671. (EOA Staff, Advocates Join Forces To Push For Common Sense School Start Times (Nov. 23, 2012) Eye On Annopolis, http://www.eyeonannapolis.net/2012/11/23/advocates-join-forces-to-push-for-common-sense-school-start-times/.)

672. (Mandela, Transcript of Speech (May 8, 1995) Launch of Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund, http://db.nelsonmandela.org/speeches/pub_view.asp?ItemID=NMS250&txtstr=Mahlamba&pg=item.)

BOOKS CITED IN THE MAIN TEXT:

Adolescent Sleep Patterns, Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences (Carskadon, edit., Cambridge Univ. Press 2002)*

Attention Deficit Disorder: Practical Coping Mechanisms (Informa Healthcare, Fisher, edit., 2nd ed. 2007)

Basics of Sleep Guide (Sleep Research Soc. 2000)§

Smolensky & Lamberg, The Body Clock: Guide to Better Health (Henry Holt & Co. 2000)

Mindell & OwensClinical Guide to Pediatric Sleep: Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Problems (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2nd ed. 2010)

Terman & McMahan, Chronotherapy: Resetting Your Inner Clock to Boost Mood, Alertness, and Quality Sleep (Penguin Group 2012)

The Educated Brain: Essays in Neuroeducation (Battro, Fischer, & Léna, edit., Cambridge Univ. Press 2008)

Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (1907)

Guidelines for Adolescent Nutrition Services (Stang & Story, edits., Univ. Minn. 2005)

Wise, Hopkin, & Garland, Handbook of Aviation Human Factors (CRC Press 2nd ed. 2009)

Hosek, Kavanaugh, & Miller, How Deployments Affect Service Members (Rand Corp. 2006)

CochFischer, & DawsonHuman Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development (Informa Healthcare 2010)

Roenneberg, Internal Time: Chronotypes, Social Jet Lag, and Why You’re So Tired (DuMont Bucherverlag 2012)

Mann & Ornstein, It’s Even Worse Than It Looks (Basic Books 2012)

Bronson & Merryman, Nurture Shock: New Thinking About Children (Twelve Books 2009)

Principles & Practice of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed. (Elsevier Inc., Sheldon, Kryger, Ferber, & Gozal edits., 2014)

Ravitch, A Primer on America’s Schools (Terry Moe, edit., 2001, Hoover Inst. Press Publication)

Sleep: A Comprehensive Handbook (Lee-Chiong, edit., Wiley-Liss 2006)

Sleep and Breathing in Children: A Developmental Approach (Marcus, Carroll, Donnelly, & Loughlin, edits., Informa Healthcare 2000)††

Sleep and Development (Oxford Univ. Press, El Sheikh edit. 2011)

Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Informa Healthcare 2008, Ivanenko edit.)**

Sleep in Children: Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns (MarcusCarroll, & Donnelly, edits., Informa Healthcare, 2nd ed. 2008)

Sleep Needs, Patterns and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop (Graham, edit., Nat. Academies Press 2000)

Wolf-MeyerThe Slumbering MassesSleep, Medicine, and Modern American Life (Univ. Minn. Press 2012)

Abaci, Take Charge of Your Chronic Pain: The Latest Research, Cutting-Edge Tools (Globe Pequot Press 2010)

Emsellem & Whiteley, Snooze… or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits (Joseph Hill Press 2006)

dominion of new york -- empty desks

APPENDICES

A. Schools Recently Delaying Start Times, etc.

B. Schools Recently Advancing Start Times, etc.

C. Start Time Recommendations, etc.

D. Recent & Selected Literature, Audio/Video, etc.

E. Notable Quotes

F. Middle School Studies, etc.

G. Incognizant “Educators”

H. Sample Advocacy Letter

I. Sample Advocacy Letter (Outline Format)

J. Sample Advocacy Letter (Academic Achievement)

K. Student Advocacy

L. Schools Going Nowhere


* Chapter 1, Sanford Dornbusch, Sleep and Adolescence: A Social Psychologist’s Perspective, and Chapter Twelve, is available at note 59; Chapter 12, Amy Wolfson, Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: What Will Adolescents’ Sleep-Wake Patterns Look Like in the 21st Century?, is at note 560.

§ Chapter 1, Jenni & Carskadon, Normal Human Sleep at Different Ages: Infants to Adolescents, is at note 528.

†† The chapter authored by Sadeh is available at note 104.

** The chapter authored by O’Malley and O’Malley is available at note 2; the chapter by Crabtree and Witcher is available at note 611.

Gaps in the endnote numerical sequence exist to allow this paper to more readily expand as new information becomes available.

early foggy a.m. bus stop -- rutheh.com

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