Recent & Selected Literature, Audio/Video, etc.
May 2, 2011 § 3 Comments
Am. Med. Assn. (Jul. 14, 2016) AMA Supports Delayed School Start Times to Improve Adolescent Wellness; see also, Am. Med. Assn. House of Delegates, Delaying School Start Time To Prevent Adolescent Sleep Deprivation (2016) Rep. Reference Comm. D, pp. 9-10.
Richter, Among teens, sleep deprivation an epidemic (Oct. 8, 2015) Stanford Medicine News Center.
Press Release, Most US middle and high schools start the school day too early (Aug. 6, 2015) CDC [summarizes study, infra).
Krueger, High School Start Times and Healthy Sleep (Mar. 3, 2015) Network for Public Health Law.
Singh, Teens Who Skimp On Sleep Now Have More Drinking Problems Later (Jan. 16, 2015) NPR.
Mozes, Almost All U.S. Teens Are Sleep Deprived, Study Finds: Too-early school start times are one big factor, experts say (Dec. 11, 2014) HealthDay [study, infra].
News@ODU, Study: Teen Drivers and Early High School Start Times a Concerning Combination (Nov. 2014) Old Dominion Univ.
Lamberg, School Starts Too Early for Teens, Pediatricians Agree (Oct. 3, 2014) 49 Psychiatric News 19, pp. 22, 27.
Lamberg, Novel Suicide-Prevention Treatment Targets Poor Sleep (Oct. 3, 2014) 49 Psychiatric News 19, p. 23.
Press Release, Let Them Sleep: AAP Recommends Delaying Start Times of Middle and High Schools to Combat Teen Sleep Deprivation (Aug. 25, 2014) Am. Academy of Pediatrics [summarizes Am. Academy of Pediatrics School Start Times for Adolescents Policy Statement, infra, listed with “Studies”]; Kennedy, Sounding alarm on need for later school start times (Aug. 25, 2014) 35 AAP News 1 [accord].
Press Release, Early Elementary School Start Times Tougher on Economically Advantaged Children, Study Finds (Jun. 17, 2014) Am. Psychological Assn. [summarizes study, infra].
Kelley & Lee, Later School Start Times in Adolescence: Time for Change (May 2014) Ed. Commission of the States; see also, Press Release, Early school start times cause chronic sleep deprivation, British researcher says, urging U.S. policymakers to consider changes (May 6, 2014) Ed. Commission of the States.
Press Release, Penn Medicine Researchers Show How Lost Sleep Leads to Lost Neurons (Mar. 18, 2014) Penn Medicine.
Hoffman, To Keep Teenagers Alert, Schools Let Them Sleep In (Mar. 13, 2014) N.Y. Times.
Fisher, Student Safety Becomes Part of Debate on Later School Start Times (Dec. 10, 2013) School Transportation News.
Neighmond, Teens Who Feel Supported At Home And School Sleep Better (Dec. 6, 2013) Capital Pub. Radio [includes audio].
Post, Study: Exhausted teens benefit from later morning school starts (Dec. 6, 2013) MPR News [includes audio].
Bradley Hospital (Nov. 14, 2013) Catch Some ZZZs to Avoid Cold and Flu Season! Bradley Hospital Researchers Link Lack of Sleep in Teens to Higher Risk of Illness [summarizes study, infra].
Anwar, Teen night owls likely to perform worse academically, emotionally (Nov. 10, 2013) UC Berkeley News Center.
Wrede & Kapur, The myth of the lazy teen — why the school day should start later (Oct. 3, 2013) Seattle Times.
Foster, The Science of Sleepy Teenagers (Apr. 27, 2013) Slate; Foster, Why teenagers really do need an extra hour in bed (Apr. 22, 2013) New Scientist [UCL Academy begins at 10 a.m., discussed here, under “England”].
Press Release, Study: Homeschool Students Sleep Better (Mar. 6, 2013) Nat. Jewish Health [includes video].
Wahlstrom, Later High School Start Times Improve Student Learning and Health (Aug. 24, 2012) Univ. Minn., College of Education & Human Development, Vision 2020 Blog.
Strasburger, School Daze: Why are Teachers and Schools Missing the Boat on Media? (Jun. 2012) 59 Pediatric Clinics N. Am. 3, 705-712.
Storr, Sleepy teen pedestrians more likely to get hit, UAB study says (May 7, 2012) Univ. Ala. Birmingham News [summarizing study, infra].
Powell, Bleary America needs some shut-eye: Forum points to schools, hospitals, factories as ripe for sleep reform (Mar. 8, 2012) Harvard Science; FIGHTING THE CLOCK: How America’s Sleep Deficit is Damaging Longterm Health (Mar. 6, 2012) Briefing, Harvard School of Public Health.
Shute, How Much Sleep Do Kids Need? Not Such A Mystery After All (Feb. 14, 2012) Nat. Pub. Radio [Dr. Owens criticizes study by Matricciani, et al., infra].
Insufficient sleep among high school students associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors (Sept. 26, 2011) CDC Online Newsroom.
Crash rates may be higher for teen drivers who start school earlier (Apr. 12, 2011) Am. Academy Sleep Med.
School Start Time and Sleep (2011) Nat. Sleep Foundation.
Willis, How Students’ Sleepy Brains Fail Them (Sum. 2009) Kappa Delta Pi Record, pp. 158-162.
School Daze: A Wake Up Call (2008) Am. Lung Assoc. of New England, Healthy Air Matters, p. 4.
O’Malley and O’Malley, School Start Time and Its Impact on Learning and Behavior, publish. in, Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Ivanenko edit., Informa Healthcare 2008) pp. 79-94.
Later Start Times for High School Students (Jun. 2002) Univ. Minn.
Dornbusch, Sleep and Adolescence: A Social Psychologist’s Perspective, publish. in, Adolescent Sleep Patterns, Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences (Carskadon, edit., Cambridge Univ. Press 2002) pp. 1-3.
Dahl, The Consequences of Insufficient Sleep for Adolescents: Links Between Sleep and Emotional Regulation (Jan. 1999) 80 Phi Delta Kappan 5, pp. 354-359.
Air Talk, Should schools push back start times to accommodate sleepy teens? (Aug. 27, 2014) KPCC [guest Judith Owens, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders, Associate Professor of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital].
A Back-To-School Conversation About Education (Sept. 4, 2013) The Diane Rehm Show [Arne Duncan, et al., discuss common core standards, later school start times and President Obama’s college rating plan].
Parenting on the Edge: schools adjust to teens who like to stay up late and sleep in (Aug. 15, 2011) KPCC, The Madeline Brand Show [interview with John Cline, Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine].
The science of sleep and circadian rhythms (Jul. 21, 2011) Science Weekly Podcast (Jul. 21, 2011) [interview with Professor Russell Foster, Ph.D., F.R.S., C.B.E., Chair of Circadian Neuroscience, Oxford Univ.].
Sleep Experts Concerned About St. Paul Start Time Change (Jun. 3, 2011) CBS [interview with Conrad Iber, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Sleep Medicine Director of the Minnesota Medical Center].
Taboh, American Teenagers Dangerously Sleep Deprived: Tired teens physically, mentally, emotionally compromised (Sept. 9, 2010) Voice Am. News [brief interviews with sleep expert, Michael Breus, Ph.D., and St. George’s School headmaster, Eric Peterson, J.D.].
Owens, Delaying School Start Times and the Health of Adolescents (Feb. 11, 2013) Montgomery Schools, Bell Times Working Group [pdf format].
Appleman, Stavitsky, & Au, Impact of School Start Time Changes on Sleep Patterns in Elementary through High School Age Students (Mar. 2012) Nat. Sleep Foundation, Sleep, Health & Safety Conf., Wash. D.C.
Barnes, Davis, Mancini, Ruffin, Simpson, & Casazza, Setting adolescents up for success: promoting a policy to delay high school start times (Jul. 2016) 86 J. School Health 7, pp. 552-557.
Paruthi, Brooks, D’Ambrosio, Hall, Kotagal, Lloyd, Malow, Maski, Nichols, Quan, Rosen, Troester, & Wise, Recommended Amount of Sleep for Pediatric Populations: A Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Jun. 2016) 12 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 6, pp. 785-786.
Chaput, Gray, Poitras, Carson, Gruber, Olds, Weiss, Gorber, Kho, Sampson, Belanger, Eryuzlu, Callender, & Tremblay, Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in school-aged children and youth (Jun. 16, 2016) 41 Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 6, pp. S266-S282.
Wheaton, Olsen, Miller, & Croft, Sleep Duration and Injury-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students — United States, 2007–2013 (2016) 65 Morbity & Mortality Weekly Rep., pp. 337–341.
Minges & Redeker, Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence (2016) 28 Sleep Med. Rev., pp. 82-91.
Wheaton, Ferro, & Croft, School Start Times for Middle School and High School Students — United States, 2011–12 School Year (Aug. 7, 2015) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 64 Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Rep. 30, pp. 809-813 [summarized in article, supra].
Appleman, Gilbert, & Au, School start time changes and sleep patterns in elementary school students (Jun. 2015) 1 Sleep Health 2, pp. 109-114.
Keyes, Maslowsky, Hamilton, & Schulenberg, The Great Sleep Recession: Changes in Sleep Duration Among US Adolescents, 1991–2012 (Mar. 2015) 135 Pediatrics 3, pp. 1-9.
Hirshkowitz, Whiton, Albert, Alessi, Bruni, DonCarlos, Hazen, Herman, Katz, Kheirandish-Gozal, Neubauer, O’Donnell, Ohayon, Peever, Rawding, Sachdeva, Setters, Vitiello, Ware, & Hillard, National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary (Mar. 2015) 1 Sleep Health 1, pp. 40-43.
Basch, Basch, Ruggles, & Rajan, Prevalence of Sleep Duration on an Average School Night Among 4 Nationally Representative Successive Samples of American High School Students, 2007–2013 (Dec. 11, 2014) Preventing Chronic Disease.
Crowley, LeBourgeois, Reen, Acebo, Tarokh, Seifer, Barker, & Carskadon, A Longitudinal Assessment of Sleep Timing, Circadian Phase, and Phase Angle of Entrainment across Human Adolescence (Nov. 7, 2014) 9 Plos One 11, e112199.
Winsler, Deutsch, Vorona, Payne, & Szklo-Coxe, Sleepless in Fairfax: The Difference One More Hour of Sleep Can Make for Teen Hopelessness, Suicidal Ideation, and Substance Use (Sept. 2014) 44 J. Youth Adolescence 2, pp. 362-378.
Titova, Hogenkamp, Jacobsson, Feldman, Schiöth, & Benedict, in press, Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: Sleep and academic performance at school (2014) Sleep, pp. 1-20.
Adolescent Sleep Working Group, Committee on Adolescence, & Council on School Health, Policy Statement, School Start Times for Adolescents (Sept. 25, 2014) 134 Pediatrics 3, pp. 642-649.
Kelley, Lockley, Foster, & Kelley, Synchronizing education to adolescent biology: ‘let teens sleep, start school later’ (Aug. 1, 2014) Learning, Media and Technology, pp. 1-17.
Keller, Smith, Gilbert, Bi, Haak, & Buckhalt, Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky (Jun. 2014) J. Educational Psychology, pp. 1-10.
Wahlstrom, Dretzke, Gordon, Peterson, Edwards, & Gdula, Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study (Feb. 2014) CAREI, Univ. Minn., pp. 1-72.
Milewski, Skaggs, Bishop, Pace, Ibrahim, Wren, & Barzdukas, Chronic Lack of Sleep is Associated With Increased Sports Injuries in Adolescent Athletes (Mar. 2014) 34 J. Pediatric Orthopaedics 2, pp. 129-133.
Boergers, Gable, & Owens, Later School Start Time Is Associated with Improved Sleep and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents (Jan. 2014) 35 J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 1, pp. 11-17.
Asarnow, McGlinchey, & Harvey, in press, The Effects of Bedtime and Sleep Duration on Academic and Emotional Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents (2013) J. Adolescent Health, pp. 1-7.
Davis, Avis, & Schwebel, in press, The Effects of Acute Sleep Restriction on Adolescents’ Pedestrian Safety in a Virtual Environment (2013) J. Adolescent Health, pp. 1-6.
Martiniuk, Senserrick, Lo, Williamson, Du, Grunstein, Woodward, Glozier, Stevenson, Norton, & Ivers, Sleep-Deprived Young Drivers and the Risk for Crash: The DRIVE Prospective Cohort Study (2013) 167 J. Am. Med. Assn. Pediatrics 7, pp. 647-655.
Díaz-Morales & Escribano, Predicting school achievement: The role of inductive reasoning, sleep length and morningness–eveningness (2013) Personality and Individual Differences.
2013 Sleep in America Poll, Exercise and Sleep: Summary of Findings (Feb. 20, 2013) Nat. Sleep Foundation.
Borlase, Gander, & Gibson, Effects of school start times and technology use on teenagers’ sleep: 1999–2008 (Jan. 2013) 11 Sleep and Biological Rhythms 1, pp. 46–54.
Bradley & Green, Do Health and Education Agencies in the United States Share Responsibility for Academic Achievement and Health? A Review of 25 Years of Evidence About the Relationship of Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Health Behaviors (2013) 52 J. Adolescent Health, pp. 523-532.
Perkinson-Gloor, Lemola, & Grob, in press, Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: The role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times (Jan. 2013) J. Adolescence, pp. 1-8.
Edwards, Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance (Dec. 2012) 31 Economics of Education Rev. 6, pp. 970-983 [summarized in article, supra].
Leger, Beck, Richard, & Godeau, Total Sleep Time Severely Drops during Adolescence (2012) 7 Plos One 10, e45204.
Short, Gradisar, Lack, Wright, Dewald, Wolfson, & Carskadon, A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sleep Duration Between U.S. and Australian Adolescents: The Effect of School Start Time, Parent-Set Bedtimes, and Extracurricular Load (2012) Health, Education, & Behavior.
Matthews, Dahl, Lee, & Hall, Sleep Duration and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Black and White Adolescents (2012) 35 Sleep 10, pp. 1353-1358.
Narang, Manlhiot, Davies-Shaw, Gibson, Chahal, Stearne, Fisher, Dobbin, & McCrindle, Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents (Oct. 1, 2012) Canadian Medical Assn. J.
Gillen-O’Neel, Huynh, & Fuligini, To Study or to Sleep? The Academic Costs of Extra Studying at the Expense of Sleep (2012) 84 Child Development 1, pp. 133-142.
Astill, Van der Heijden, Van IJzendoorn, & Van Someren, Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed (2012) 138 Psychological Bull. 6, pp. 1109 –1138.
Matricciani, Olds, Blunden, Rigney, & Williams, Never Enough Sleep: A Brief History of Sleep Recommendations for Children (Feb. 13, 2012) 129 Pediatrics 3, pp. 548-556; see also, Replies (Feb. 2012) ) Pediatrics, Letters to the Editor [Judith Owens, et al.].
Taki, Hashizume, Thyreau, Sassa, Takeuchi, Wu, Kotozaki, Nouchi, Asano, Asano, Fukuda, & Kawashima, Sleep duration during weekdays affects hippocampal gray matter volume in healthy children (Dec. 14, 2011) Neurolmage.
Preckel, Lipnevich, Boehme, Brandner, Georgi, Könen, Mursin, & Roberts, Morningness-eveningness and educational outcomes: the lark has an advantage over the owl at high school (2011) British J. Educational Psychology, pp. 1-21.
Ming, Koransky, Kang, Buchman, Sarris, & Wagner, Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students (Oct. 20, 2011) 2011 Clinical Med. Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory & Pulmonary Med. 5, pp. 71-79.
Jacob & Rockoff, Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments (Sept. 2011) Hamilton Project, Brookings Inst.
Eaton, McKnight-Eily, Lowry, Croft, Presley-Cantrell, & Perry, Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students (Aug. 5, 2011) Preventive Med., pp. 1-3.
Carrell, Maghakian, & West, A’s from Zzzz’s? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Performance of Adolescents (Aug. 2011) 3 Am. Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3, pp. 62-81.
Clinkinbeard, Simi, Evans, & Anderson, Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter? (Jul. 2011) J. Youth & Adolescence, pp. 1-3.
Lufi, Tzischinsky, & Hadar, Delaying School Starting Time by One Hour: Some Effects on Attention Levels in Adolescents (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 2, 137-143.
Vorona, Szklo-Coxe, Wu, Dubik, Zhao, & Ware, Dissimilar Teen Crash Rates in Two Neighboring Southeastern Virginia Cities with Different High School Start Times (Apr. 2011) 7 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 2, pp. 145-151.
Kirby, Maggi, & D’Angiulli, School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents: A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence (Mar. 2011) 40 Educational Researcher 2, pp. 56-61.
2011 Sleep in America Poll: Communications Technology in the Bedroom (Mar. 2011) Nat. Sleep Foundation.
Sofer-Dudek, Sadeh, Dahl, Rosenblat-Stein, Poor Sleep Quality Predicts Deficient Emotion Information Processing over Time in Early Adolescence (2011) 34 Sleep 11, pp. 1499-1508.
Owens, Belon, & Moss, Impact of Delaying School Start Time on Adolescent Sleep, Mood, and Behavior (Jul. 2010) 164 Archives Pediatrics & Adolescent Med. 7, pp. 608-614.
Mednick, Christakis, & Fowler, The Spread of Sleep Loss Influences Drug Use in Adolescent Social Networks (Mar. 2010) 5 Plos One 3, e9775.
Pasch, Laska, Lytle, & Moe, Adolescent Sleep, Risk Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms: Are They Linked? (Mar. 2010) 34 Am. J. Health Behavior 2, pp. 237-248.
Pizza, Contardi, Antognini, Zagoraiou, Borrotti, Mostacci, Mondini, & Cirignotta, Sleep Quality and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Adolescents (Feb. 15, 2010) 6 J. Clinical Sleep Med. 1, pp. 41-45.
Gangwisch, Babiss, Malaspina, Turner, Zammit, & Posner, Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation (Jan. 1, 2010) 33 Sleep 1, pp. 97-106.
Eaton, McKnight-Eily, Lowry, Croft, Presley-Cantrell, & Perry, Prevalence of Insufficient, Borderline, and Optimal Hours of Sleep Among High School Students — United States, 2007 (2010) 46 J. Adolescent Health, pp. 399-401.
Dewald, Meijer, Oort, Kerkhof, & Bögels, The inﬂuence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review (2010) Sleep Med. Rev. 14, pp. 179–189.
Figueiro & Rea, Lack of short-wavelength light during the school day delays dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in middle school students (2010) 31 NeuroEndocrinology Letters 1.
Calamaro, Mason, & Ratcliffe, Adolescents Living the 24/7 Lifestyle: Effects of Caffeine and Technology on Sleep Duration and Daytime Functioning (Jun. 2009) 123 Pediatrics 6, pp. e1005-e1010.
Knutson & Lauderdale, Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of bed time and wake time among U.S. adolescents aged 15-17 years (Mar. 2009) 154 J. Pediatrics 3, pp. 426–430.
Hagenauer, Perryman, Lee, & Carskadon, Adolescent Changes in the Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep (Jun. 2009) 31 Developmental Neuroscience 4, pp. 276-284.
Alfano, Zakem, Costa, Taylor, & Weems, Sleep Problems and their Relation to Cognitive Factors, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents (2009) 26 Depression & Anxiety, pp. 503-512.
Noland, Price, Dake, & Telljohann, Adolescents’ Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep (2009) 79 J. School Health 5, pp. 224-230.
Wolfson, Spaulding, Dandrow, & Baroni, Middle School Start Times: The Importance of a Good Night’s Sleep for Young Adolescents (Aug. 15, 2007) 5 Behavioral Sleep Med. 3, pp. 194-209.
Liu & Buysse, Sleep and youth suicidal behavior: a neglected field (May 2006) 19 Current Opn. Psychiatry 3, pp. 288-293.
Wittmann, Dinnich, Merrow, Roenneberg, Social Jetlag: Misalignment of Biological and Social Time (2006) 23 Chronobiology Internat. 1&2, pp. 497–509.
Millman, edit., Excessive Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment Strategies (Jun. 2005) 115 Pediatrics 6, pp. 1774-1786.
Walker & Stickgold, It’s Practice, with Sleep, that Makes Perfect: Implications of Sleep-Dependent Learning and Plasticity for Skill Performance (2005) 24 Clinical Sports Med., pp. 301-317.
Fredriksen, Rhodes, Reddy, & Way, Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the Effects of Adolescent Sleep Loss During the Middle School Years (Jan./Feb. 2004) 75 Child Development 1, pp. 84–95.
Klein, Planning Middle School Schedules for Improved Attention and Achievement (Sept. 2004) 48 Scandinavian J. Educational Research 4, pp. 441-450.
Laberge, Petit, Simard, Vitaro, Tremblay, & Montplaisi, Development of Sleep Patterns in Early Adolescence (2001) 10 J. Sleep Research, pp. 59-66.
Davis, Parents conflicted about later school start times for teens (Feb. 16, 2015) Univ. Michigan, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital.
Later School Start Times with Dr Christopher-James Harvey and Guy Holloway (Oct. 9, 2014) BBC World News.
Daisley, Do early school start times still make sense? (Sept. 19, 2012) CBS Sunday Morning.
Daniel Wetter, What We’re Watching: Some Communities Reluctant to Start School Later (Jun. 21, 2012) Education Next.
BBC, Study finds that teenagers are not getting enough sleep (Apr. 18, 2012) Health News.
Czeisler, Leape, Redline, & Hu, FIGHTING THE CLOCK: How America’s Sleep Deficit is Damaging Longterm Health (Mar. 6, 2012) The Forum at Harvard School of Public Health Presentation [Professors Czeisler, Redline, and Hu discuss school start times].
Sleep-Deprived Teens’ Disturbing Thoughts (Jan. 10, 2010) CBS News.
Matt’s Story: Rethinking School Start Times (2007) Harvard Univ., Healthy Sleep [includes brief interview with Richard Ferber, M.D., Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Senior Associate in Neurology, Department of Neurology, Children’s Hospital, Boston].
From Z’zzz’s to A’s (Jan. 31, 2002) Frontline: Inside the Teenage Brain [includes interview with Mary Carskadon, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Brown University School of Medicine, Director of Chronobiology and Sleep Research at Bradley Hospital].